Photocatalysis by J. Augustyński, B. D. Alexander, R. Solarska (auth.), Carlo

By J. Augustyński, B. D. Alexander, R. Solarska (auth.), Carlo Alberto Bignozzi (eds.)

Content material: steel Oxide Photoanodes for Water Splitting, by means of J. Augustynski, B. D. Alexander and R. Solarska; Hydrogen creation with Nanostructured and Sensitized steel Oxides , via Stefano Caramori, Vito Cristino, Laura Meda, Roberto Argazzi and Carlo Alberto Bignozzi; floor Nanostructures in Photocatalysts for Visible-Light-Driven Water Splitting, through Kazuhiko Maeda and Kazunari Domen; man made Photosynthesis demanding situations: Water Oxidation at Nanostructured Interfaces, by means of Mauro Carraro, Andrea Sartorel, Francesca Maria Toma, Fausto Puntoriero, Franco Scandola, Sebastiano Campagna, Maurizio Prato and Marcella Bonchio; Photocatalytic relief of CO2: From Molecules to Semiconductors, by means of Tatsuto Yui, Yusuke Tamaki, Keita Sekizawa and Osamu Ishitani; layout of Heterogeneous Photocatalysts in line with steel Oxides to regulate the Selectivity of Chemical Reactions, through Andrea Maldotti and Alessandra Molinari

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The nanowire arrays were grown vertically onto a BiVO4 seed layer deposited on an F-SnO2 support and the growing conditions were varied as a function of the deposition temperature and additional annealing treatments. 4 mA cmÀ2 at 1 V (vs Ag/AgCl) under simulated one sun irradiation. A different approach was chosen by Iwase and Kudo [98] who recently investigated the photoelectrochemical activity of BiVO4 films prepared by pasting a fine nanopowder onto conductive FTO glass plates. 5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) under visible-light irradiation was reported.

Similarly, the mechanism for conduction, and how titanium might improve this has been debated. Morin proposed conduction to be mediated by electron hopping involving Fe d orbitals or through sp orbitals of oxygen atoms; the role of oxygen vacancies has also been invoked [65]. Morin’s original observation was that an increase in conductivity is commensurate with the addition of one electron into the conduction process per titanium atom. g. conduction through small polaron hopping, Fe3þ þ Ti3þ ! Fe2þ þ Ti4þ [66].

There remains cordial disagreement as to the exact role of silicon in hematite films. It is perhaps prescient to summarize that the conflicting reports of the role of particular dopants may lead to confusion as to the “best choice” for future development. It would appear that, in the most part, this discord comes not from a confusion about the behaviour of the dopant per se, but seems to stem from the range of preparative routes to ferric oxide thin films. In particular, how one incorporates a particular dopant into a lattice will depend critically on the solution chemistry and speciation of the metal and it is perhaps right to expect differences on attempting to compare thin films prepared from sol–gel synthesis with those from electrodeposition, or even comparing films prepared from “standard” spray pyrolysis with ultrasonic spray pyrolysis or chemical vapour deposition.

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