By Peter L. Bonate PhD, FCP (auth.)
This e-book offers either the artwork and technological know-how at the back of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. utilizing a building-block strategy, the writer begins from linear and nonlinear versions on the person point and proceeds to enhance extra advanced linear and nonlinear combined results types on the inhabitants point, with specific emphasis on exhibiting the interrelationships among some of the version forms. the idea at the back of the tools are illustrated utilizing genuine information drawn from the literature and from the author’s personal studies in drug improvement. information are analyzed utilizing numerous software program, together with SAS, WinNonlin, SAAM II, and NONMEM. A key part of the e-book is to teach how types are accredited and rejected, eventually resulting in an invaluable and informative version that may be applied utilizing desktop simulation to reply to "what-if" questions.
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Additional info for Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation
Tests of this nature are simply testing whether the correlation coefficient equals zero or not. Since the significance of a correlation coefficient is dependent on the sample size, large sample sizes easily can lead to significant correlations. 20, which under a linear model indicates that 4% of the variance is explained by the predictor variables, becomes significant at p5 7 0:05 when the sample size is more than 100. A more relevant hypothesis test is the one-sided null hypothesis that the correlation is greater than some value deemed by the analyst to have value, such as r > 0:95.
In the case where two statistical tests are correl- ated the Type I error rate using Eq. 32) is overestimated. If Test 1 has Type I error rate a1 and Test 2 has Type I error rate a2 , then the familywise Type I error rate is bounded by the inequality a1 5 7 z5 7 1 À (1 À a1 )(1 À a2 ). See Moye (2003) for further details on multiple testing. One conservative approach to controlling Type I error rate is to use Bonferroni-corrected a-levels. Under this paradigm, reject the null hypothesis if the observed p-value is less than a=k, where k is the kth hypothesis tested.
With today’s software it’s is an easy matter to obtain parameter estimates for most any model. Choosing an appropriate model is often far more difficult than estimating the parameters of a model. It is the choice of model, the formulation of the model, where science and intuition meet and therein lies the art of modeling. The choice of model should be based on biological, physiological, and pharmacokinetic plausibility. For example, compartmental models may be used because of their basis in theory and plausibility.