Paul and Jesus: How the Apostle Transformed Christianity by James D. Tabor

By James D. Tabor

This interesting exam of the earliest years of Christianity finds how the guy we name St. Paul formed Christianity as we all know it at the present time.

Historians understand virtually not anything in regards to the twenty years following the crucifixion of Jesus, whilst his fans regrouped and started to unfold his message. in this time Paul joined the circulate and commenced to evangelise to the gentiles. utilizing the oldest Christian records that we have—the letters of Paul—as good as different early Chris­tian assets, historian and student James Tabor reconstructs the origins of Christianity. Tabor exhibits how Paul separated himself from Peter and James to introduce his personal model of Christianity, which might proceed to increase independently of the message that Jesus, James, and Peter preached.

Paul and Jesus illuminates the interesting interval of background while Christianity was once born out of Judaism.

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A. Ellis, Vol. 1 (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985), 207–35. 9. Walter J. Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London: Routledge, 1982), 64–65. ” To be sure, such substitutions of similar words, shifts in order, etc. are typical of many orally transmitted texts, because of the prominent role that memory plays in much oral tradition. ” Nevertheless, as Parry observed, these variants are found in much written tradition as well. ■ U N C OV E R I N G S I G N S O F ORAL- W R I T T E N T R A N S M I S S I O N I N L I T E R A RY T E X T S Parry’s brief observations of signs of oral-written transmission in early Homeric tradition were followed by other, more extensive investigations in classics, medieval studies, and other areas.

29 The above is just a sampling of observations of a much broader phenomenon. The Mesopotamian tradition contains a number of examples of multiply transmitted traditions. Virtually any time one compares parallel versions of cuneiform texts, as in—for example—Tigay’s parallel comparisons of verbally parallel portions of the Gilgamesh epic, one finds plentiful examples of the sorts of memory 24. Günter Burkard, Textkritische Untersuchungen zu ägyptischen Weisheitslehren des alten und mittleren Reiches, Ägyptologische Abhandlungen (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1977).

46. See Fox, Prov 1–9, 379–80 for a discussion of the variants and the substantially different rendering of 3:15 in the LXX. 47. Fox, Prov 1–9, 157. 32 ■ T H E F O R M AT I O N O F T H E H E B R E W B I B L E So far I have not considered explanations for variation nor argued for the priority of one version of a saying over another. Nevertheless, there are some cases where such explanation is more likely than others. Take, for example, the following case of a parallel couplet, whose second line is identical (‫“ ;לסור ממקשי מות‬in order to turn away from the traps of death”), but where the first line of Prov 14:27 is often taken to be a pious modification of the line seen in Prov 13:14:48 Prov 13:14a Prov 14:27a ‫תורת חכם מקור חיים‬ ‫יראת יהוה מקור חיים‬ the teaching of the wise is a well of life the fear of Yhwh is a well of life Interestingly, the LXX of Prov 14:27a mentions πρόσταγμα (“commandment”), where the MT has ‫“( יראת‬fear”) possibly assimilating to the ‫“( תורה‬teaching”) in Prov 13:14a.

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