By U. Schmoch, S. Hinze, G. Jäckel, N. Kirsch (auth.), Guido Reger, Dr. Ulrich Schmoch (eds.)
A extra special figuring out of the interplay among technological know-how and know-how is critical to be able to boost applicable instruments for destiny R&D administration and know-how coverage. the 1st a part of this booklet describes the constitution of the science/technology interface and analyses the function of technological know-how for the new release of latest applied sciences and respective institutional difficulties. the second one half examines the demanding situations to R&D administration and applicable administration instruments from the point of view of commercial businesses. half III files the result of box stories within the science-intensive components of clinical lasers and neural networks. the foremost goal of the ebook is to collect the diversity of other ways from a tutorial and commercial perspective.
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Additional resources for Organisation of Science and Technology at the Watershed: The Academic and Industrial Perspective
6 per cent can be observed (cf. 1-1). This GERD factor represents a top position in comparison to other European countries and about the same level as the United States and Japan. 1 per cent. Nevertheless, the German activities are high in absolute as well as in relative terms. 30 The second comonly used indicator is the so-called BERD factor, which is the R&D expenditure of business enterprises in relation to the GDP. Thus, the BERD factor describes the privately financed R&D within a national economy.
Kaln Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach Bundesforschungsanstalt fUr Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig Forschungsgesellschaft fUr Angewandte Naturwissenschaften, Wachtberg Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Farderung der angewandten Forschung e. fAG IPP KFA KfK KIF LFA MDC Gesellschaft fUr Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig GroBforschungseinrichtung (National Research Centre) Geo-Forschungszentrum, Potsdam GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht Gesellschaft fUr Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung mbH, St.
This necessitates research in selected research fields on a long-term basis in order to obtain scientific and organisational competence and market experience. At the same time, scientific, organisational, and personnel-related flexibility are vital to meet the specific requirements of projects and contract partners. Research focuses are continually reviewed against market developments and demand. This practise enables the institutes to concentrate on the effective transformation of research findings into economic processes and marketable products.