Organic culture of bramble fruits by Guy K Ames

By Guy K Ames

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Ternal tube ran from B up to the top of C for conveying the ascending column of hot vapour. This type had the disadvantage not only of being more easily broken, but also that the condensed liquid in C received very little heat, and therefore the extraction, being carried out by the lukewarm solvent, was usually very slow. w Stirring. In the course of many organic preparations, a solution or suspension has to be kept continuously agitated either during the addition of a reagent or throughout the main stage of the preparation.

Magnesium sulphate A neutral drying agent, which, like sodium (powdered anhysulphate, can be used on most occasions. Its drous). drying action is more rapid than that of sodium sulphate. Calcium sulphate Applicable to all liquids. ("Drierite"). Metallic sodium Used particularly for ethers. Cannot be used (preferably as wire). for any compound affected by alkalis, or easily subject to reduction (owing to the hydrogen evolved during dehydration). c he m 4a ll. vn /fo ru m Calcium chloride (granular).

Ph Experiment 6. Fractional Distillation of a Mixture of Benzene and Toluene. Fractionally distil about 40 ml. of a mixture of equal volumes of benzene and toluene, using the type of fractionating column shown in Fig. i I(B), in which about 18-20 cm. of the column are actually filled with glass sections, but in which the cotton-wool lagging is not used. Distil very slowly, so that the total distillation occupies about i£ hours. Shield the apparatus very carefully from draughts. ps (a) 80-85°, (^) 85-107°, (c] 107-111°.

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