By Rajiv / Sivarajan, Kumar N. Ramaswami
Computing device optical
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Additional resources for Optical networks : a practical perspective
The "where needed" is significant because carriers can rarely predict the location of future traffic demands. As a result it is difficult for them to plan and build networks optimized around specific assumptions on bandwidth demands. At the same time, the mix of services offered by carriers is expanding. We talked about different circuit-switched and packet-switched services earlier. What is not commonly realized is that today these services are delivered over separate overlay networks, rather than a single network.
1990 . 3 Bandwidth growth over time in different types of networks. service providers. Before providing some more data, we introduce some terminology first. Each route in a network comprises many fiber cables. Each cable contains many fibers. For example, a 10-mile-long route using 3 fiber cables is said to have 10 route miles and 30 sheath (cable) miles. If each cable has 20 fibers, the same route is said to have 600 fiber miles. As of the end of 1998, the local-exchange carriers in the United States had deployed more than 355,000 sheath miles of fiber, containing more than 16 million fiber miles.
The Internet Protocol has also been enhanced to provide similar services. Most of these QoS efforts rely on the notion of having a connection-oriented layer. For example, in an IP network, multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) provides virtual circuits to support end-to-end traffic streams. A virtual circuit forces all packets belonging to that circuit to follow the same path through the network, allowing better allocation of resources in the network to meet certain quality-of-service guarantees, such as bounded delay for each packet.