Only One God? Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the by Bob Becking, Meindert Dijkstra, Marjo Korpel, Karel Vriezen

By Bob Becking, Meindert Dijkstra, Marjo Korpel, Karel Vriezen

The view of old Israelite faith as monotheistic has lengthy been conventional in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, religions that experience elaborated of their personal method the biblical photo of a unmarried male deity. yet contemporary archaeological findings of texts and photographs from the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel and Judah and their neighbourhood supply a particularly diverse effect. concerns specifically raised by means of those are the lifestyles of a feminine consort, Asherah, and the implication for monotheism; and the proliferation of pictorial representations which could contradict the biblical ban on photographs. used to be the faith of historical Israel quite because the Bible could have us think? This quantity presents a accomplished creation to those matters, proposing the suitable inscriptions and discussing their attainable effect for Israelite monotheism, the position of girls within the cult, and biblical theology.

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15 The fact that priests were appointed in places far from Jerusalem may be concluded from a seal-ring which once belonged to a priest from Dor, whose name was derived from the divine name YHWH:16 '[Belonging to Zajchariah priest in Dor'. This short survey of excavated objects with inscriptions demonstrates that archaeological finds can contribute to our knowledge of the ancient Israelite religion, though only to a limited extent. These finds supply extra-biblical information about the occurrence of the divine name YHWH and the names of other deities; about the use of blessings in the name of YHWH; and about objects which can plausibly be related to the cult of YHWH and other deities.

30. D. Ussishkin, 'Shumacher's Shrine in Building 338 at Megiddo', IEJ 39 (1989), pp. 149-72 (149-70); Stern, Dor, 102-107; see, however, O. ', in A. ), Biblical Archaeology Today, 1990 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), pp. 221-30 (224-26). 31. G. May, Material Remains of the Megiddo Cult (OIP, 26; Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1935), pp. 13-17. 32. ANEP, pp. F. 4 (1987), pp. 26-37. VRIEZEN Archaeological Traces of Cult in Ancient Israel Figure 10. ). Figure 11. Cult stand from Tel Megiddo.

Z. Zevit, 'The Khirbet el-Q6m Inscription Mentioning a Goddess', BASOR 255 (1984), pp. 39-47, esp. 45-46; D. 4, pp. 555-64, esp. S. ', Orientalia 65 (1996), pp. 209-19, esp. 217-18. 16. This problem will be discussed. 17. Hadley, 'Some Drawings', pp. 187-88. For a different arrangement and interpretation of the texts on Pithos B, see McCarter, 'Kuntillet Ajrad: inscribed Pithos 2 (247B)', in Context of Scripture II, pp. 171-72 and my contribution pp. 116-17 in this volume. 30 Only One God? 18 The sherds of pithoi A and B both contain inscriptions and drawings.

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