By Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
The OECD technology, know-how and Industry Outlook 2008 experiences key tendencies in technology, expertise and innovation in OECD nations and a couple of significant non-member economies together with Brazil, Chile, China, Israel, Russia and South Africa. utilizing the newest on hand info and signs, the booklet examines subject matters excessive at the time table of technology and innovation coverage makers, together with technological know-how and innovation functionality; tendencies in nationwide technology, know-how and innovation guidelines; and practices to evaluate the socio-economic affects of public research. This volume also presents anyone profile of the technological know-how and innovation functionality of every nation in relation to its nationwide context and present coverage challenges.Table of content material :Executive SummaryChapter 1. international Dynamics in technology, know-how and Innovation-Introduction-Drivers of financial Growth-R&D Dynamics: The altering Landscape-Innovation in Key Technologies-Financing Innovation-Patents and medical courses Surge-Demand for Human assets Accelerates-SummaryChapter 2. major developments in technological know-how, know-how and Innovation Policy-Introduction-National techniques for technology, expertise and Innovation-Strengthening Public study and Public examine Organisations-Support for enterprise R&D and Innovation-Enhancing Collaboration and Networking between Innovators-Globalisation of analysis and Innovation-Human assets for S&T-Evaluating Innovation Policies-Outlook: destiny ChallengesChapter three. technological know-how and Innovation: kingdom Notes-Australia-Austria-Belgium-Canada-Czech Republic-Denmark-Finland-France-Germany-Greece-Hungary-Iceland-Ireland-Italy-Japan-Korea-Luxembourg-The Netherlands-New Zealand-Norway-Poland-Portugal-Slovak Republic-Spain-Sweden-Switzerland-Turkey-United Kingdom-United States-Brazil-Chile-China-Israel-Russian Federation-South Africa-Annex 3.A1. Description of symptoms and MethodsChapter four. Assesssing the Socio-Economic affects of Public R&D: fresh Practices and Perspectives-Introduction-Defining the affects of R&D-Key demanding situations for Assessing the Socio-Economic affects of Public R&D-Approaches to affect evaluate of Public examine in OECD Countries-Impact review of study Councils and Public learn Organisations-Impact evaluate of study Programmes-Non-Economic Impacts-ConclusionsChapter five. Innovation in enterprises: Findings from a Comparative research of Innovation Survey Microdata-Introduction-Using Microdata from Innovation Surveys-Innovation Indicators-Technological and Non-Technological Innovation-Innovation and Productivity-Innovation and IPR-Final comments
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Additional info for OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008
4% between 1996 and 2005 from a very small base. New Zealand, South Africa and Turkey also reported strong increases in numbers of researchers, with annual growth rates reaching 9% or more, three times the OECD average of 3%. In South Africa and Turkey, growth was again from a small base. 35. 1787/451415834142 Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators (MSTI) 2008/1. Although women’s participation in the HRST labour force has grown, their underrepresentation in R&D activities is increasingly attracting the attention of policy makers (OECD, 2006b).
This is a major dynamic of patenting at the present time. The ICT sector invests heavily in R&D. In 2004, ICT manufacturing industries accounted for more than a quarter of total manufacturing R&D expenditure in most OECD countries, and over half in Finland and Korea. The share of ICT in total patent applications rose in almost all countries from the mid-1990s to the beginning of the 2000s. In OECD countries, ICT-related patents represented, on average, 35% of total PCT filings in 2005. Over 50% were related to ICT in Finland and Singapore, and in China, the share of ICT in total patent applications more than doubled over 1996-2005 (OECD, 2008d).
The OECD area accounted for just over 81% of overall production of articles. The intensity of output (measured as scientific articles per million population) has increased in the majority of countries over the past decade. Decreases were reported in only eight countries: Israel had the largest drop (125 articles per million population), followed by the 44 OECD SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY OUTLOOK 2008 – ISBN 978-92-64-04991-8 – © OECD 2008 1. 29. 1787/451223256780 Note: Patent counts are based on the priority date, the inventor’s country of residence, using simple counts.