New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy by Ephraim Stern

By Ephraim Stern

Biblical archaeology, historical Israel, archaeology of the southern Levant

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25 m from the structure. They were built oflarge, closely fitted stones to a height of2 m above ground level. The rooms were probably higher, in order to hinder penetration by the enemy. This device is frequently encountered in Hellenistic fortifications. The Towers. Two more towers were exposed; both project from the wall inward and outward. lt was founded on bedrock and its lower courses were built oflarge, roughly dressed ashlars. Like the gate towers and the tower in the western part of the southern wall, this tower had no rooms on the ground floor.

Judging from the pottery, stratum 1 is to be assigned to no later than the eighth century BCE. ) AREAS II AND III. At the northeastern tip of the mound, where the citadel stood, two exploratory soundings were made: a small pit in area II and a somewhat larger excavation nearby (area III). These soundings revealed the nature ofthe citadel and its stratigraphy. It is quite certain that its dimensions were about 60 sq m. 15 m) was built oflarge, undressed stones inside and outside, with a fill of smaller stones.

MOSHE KOCHAVI IDENTIFICATION. The strong fortifications and public buildings on the site suggest an identification with Aphek, which was an advance Syrian (Ara- B. ,IEJli (1961), 192-193; 14 (1964), 1-49; M. Stekelis and 0. Bar-Yosef, L'Anthropologie mean) outpost in the ninth and eighth centuries BCE. This identification, 69 (1965), 176-183; B. Arensburg and 0. Bar-Yosef, Pateorient I (1973), 201-206; S. J. M. Davis, originally proposed by M. Dothan, is supported by the results of a survey "Faunal Remains of Upper Palaeolithic Sites at Ein-Gev (Israel)" (Master's thesis, Hebrew Univ.

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