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From the early flooring and polished prism features of glass lighthouse Fresnel lenses to trendy microreplicated versatile Fresnel lenses for sun concentrators, new purposes of prismatic optical parts for gentle keep watch over are continually being built. furthermore, options using unmarried and compound prismatic and reflective optical elements are rising within the fields of metrology, polarization regulate, projection structures, illumination, and reveal lighting fixtures, between others.
Like any classical Greek texts on technology, Euclid's works on optics before everything got here to the West typically via medieval Arabic texts and commentaries. whereas numerous Greek models of the Optika have been came across and translated as early because the 16th century, checking out what could have been Euclid's unique has now not been effortless.
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Hughes, and F. van den Bosch. 2007. The Study of Plant Disease Epidemics. APS Press, St Paul, MN. McRoberts, N. 2006. Karpography: A generic concept of quality for chain management and knowledge transfer in supply chains. Acta Horticulturae 712:153–158. P. K. Brecht. 2003. Quality of strawberries as affected by temperature abuse during ground, in-ﬂight and retail handling operations. Acta Horticulturae 712:239–246. Schepers, H. and O. van Kooten. 2006. Proﬁtability of ready-to-eat strategies. In Quantifying the Agri-Food Supply Chain, eds.
P13 q1 p12 p11 q2 p23 p22 q3 p33 FIGURE 2 QCG depicting the hypothetical possibilities for items to degrade in quality across three quality categories. The probabilities of transition between quality categories over a relevant timescale are indicated by the pij values. * Note that the analysis is not dependent on the number of quality categories; three is chosen as offering an intuitive separation between good and not acceptable by one intermediate category. 2008 7:21pm Compositor Name: BMani xxxi Under this assumption, the QCG contains all the information that is needed to predict what will happen to the composition of a batch of items that is handled by the chain.
We further assume that the quality categories reﬂect increasing levels of ripeness such that q1 might be thought of as ideal ripeness, q2 as full ripeness to slight overripeness, and q3 as unacceptably overripe. Since the differentiation of produce items into different quality categories (or classes) is dependent on ripening processes, we know that in any interval of time there is a ﬁnite probability that an individual item in a quality category qi will mature to quality class qj where j > i, but that transitions in the opposite direction are not possible.