By D. W. Pohl (auth.), Dieter W. Pohl, Daniel Courjon (eds.)
Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM, sometimes called NSOM) is a brand new local probe technique with a resolving energy of 10--50 nm. no longer being constrained through diffraction, near-field optics (NFO) opens new views for optical characterization and the certainty of optical phenomena, specifically in biology, microelectronics and fabrics science.
SNOM, after first demonstrations in '83/'84, has gone through a quick improvement some time past to 4 years. The elevated curiosity has been principally motivated via the wealth of optical houses that may be investigated and the transforming into significance of characterization at the nanometer scale usually. Examples comprise using fluorescence, birefrigence and plasmon results for purposes specifically in biology, microelectronics and fabrics technological know-how, to call only a few.
This quantity emerged from the 1st overseas assembly committed completely to NFO, and includes a whole survey of the 1992 actions within the box, particularly the range of instrumental ideas which are presently being explored, the demonstration of the imaging services in addition to theoretical interpretations - a hugely nontrivial job. the excellent choice of papers dedicated to those and comparable matters make the booklet a helpful device for anyone drawn to near-field optics.
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Extra info for Near Field Optics
Near Field Optics, 25-34. © 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 26 regulated systems , this approach is equally applicable in imaging dielectrics. Fig. 1 shows our implementation of this approach. At the heart of the technique there is a micro-pipette, or a pulled optical fiber, covered everywhere with gold or aluminum, except at its tip. This system operates in two simultane'ous modalities of force microscope, and NSOM. To obtain the NSOM image, th~ output of a He-Ne laser is transmitted through the sample and is directed toward a photomultiplier tube (PMT) , where it is detected (collection mode).
1992), "Phase Contrast and amplitude pseudo-heterodyne interference near field scanning optical microscopy", Appl. Phys. Lett. K. (1985), "Scanning Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope: Application to Surface Studies", Appl. Opt. K. (1992), "Attractive Mode Force Microscopy Using Feedback Controlled Fiber Interferometer", Rev. Sci. Instrum. H. (1992), "Near Field Magneto-Optics and High Density Data Storage", Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142-144 A SCANNING NEAR-FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPE (SNOM) FOR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS T.
The distance dependence of the tunneling current is less extreme than at usual tunneling voltages of around 1 V. For SNOM, the analog photomultiplier signal has been used so far for image recording because of the high light levels. In the beginning the light level was adjusted by defocusing the fibre coupling. Since this makes the optical signal extremely vibration-sensitive, we have optimized the fibre coupling and attenuated the laser beam with grey or polarization filters instead. 1m square region of the salt crystal test sample are shown in figure 5.