By Larry Engelking
This booklet is meant to offer readers a “quick glance” at metabolic and endocrine body structure. Emphasis is put on tutorial figures, circulation diagrams and tables, whereas textual content fabric has been held to a minimal. regularly, the endocrine approach is first outlined and defined, after which each one endocrine gland is mentioned individually. the place acceptable, universal endocrine issues have additionally been integrated. this article concisely elucidates the endocrine mechanisms answerable for protecting homeostatic regulate of vital physiologic variables, and to aid the reader in realizing universal pathophysiologic deviations from basic. Over 360 multiple-choice questions gauge the reader’s potential to successfully comprehend the topic material.
This new version comprises six new chapters masking: hormone disposition, size and secretion; bovine, equine and rodent estrus cycles; primate menstrual cycle; male reproductive method; testosterone, estrogen and progesterone; comparative elements of endocrinology. studying targets were extra before everything of every bankruptcy and all the questions are new.
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Additional info for Metabolic and Endocrine Physiology, Third Edition
An important mechanism appears to be the chemical exchange of free protons for Ca2+, Na+, and K+ bound to the carbonate, with the general buffering action as follows: 2H++ C032– CO2 + H20 During the more chronic, compensated phase of metabolic acidosis, such as occurs with renal failure, buffering takes place through a combined exchange with bone carbonate cations, as occurs during the acute phase, and increased activity of osteoclasts, which help to mobilize additional bone mineral (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and CaHP04).
PU/PD is a common finding in animals with hyperthyroidism (Ch. 39). Although the mechanism is unclear, it is believed that the increased medullary blood flow associated with this disease may cause solute washout from the vasa recta, thus decreasing medullary hypertonicity. The GFR is also increased in hyperthyroid animals, and high titers of thyroid hormones may have a direct inhibitory affect on the concentrating abilities of the nephron. , denoting that they possess a disease of unknown origin), and exhibit no other evidence of neuroendocrine dysfunction.
BST stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and mimics PRL activity on the mammary glands by enhancing their ability to synthesize milk components. It reportedly partitions nutrients to these tissues while taking them away from other organs. Pharmacologic doses of somatotropin injected into growing pigs and lambs reportedly increase nitrogen retention, improve feed efficiency, increase muscle mass, reduce carcass lipid content, and increase carcass protein content. GH, IGF-1, PTH-related peptide (PTHrp), and PRL have all been detected in milk (Ch.