By Hitoshi Tatsumi, Kimihide Hayakawa, Masahiro Sokabe (auth.), Masaki Noda M.D., Ph.D. (eds.)
Mechanical tension is key to the functioning of the physique, particularly for tissues akin to bone, muscle, middle, and vessels. it truly is popular that astronauts and bedridden sufferers undergo muscle and bone loss from loss of use. Even the guts, in pumping blood, motives mechanical pressure to itself and to vascular tissue. With the lack of mechanical tension, homeostasis turns into impaired and results in pathological stipulations akin to osteopenia, muscle atrophy, and vascular tissue disorder. In aged populations, such mechanical pathophysiology, in addition to the mechanical actions of locomotor and cardiovascular platforms, is necessary simply because skeletal and middle services decline and reason ailments in different organs. during this monograph, mechanical tension is mentioned through specialists within the box with recognize to molecular, mobile, and tissue facets on the subject of drugs. masking themes comparable to gravity and tissues and disuse osteoporosis, the e-book offers the main updated info on state of the art developments within the box of mechanobiology and is a well timed contribution to investigate into locomotor and circulatory ailments which are significant difficulties in modern society.
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Additional resources for Mechanosensing Biology
At present, stress is estimated from the strain of materials with known elastic modulus. However, the quantitative estimation of stress in the subcellular structures is generally difficult. In the case of membrane voltage, it is directly measured with microelectrodes or patch-clamp recording techniques; membrane voltage is also estimated with voltage-sensitive dyes. A technique for estimating the stress in the subcellular structures is truly required. FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) is introduced to estimate conformational changes in proteins in response to amphipaths (chemical compounds to induce stress in the membrane or proteins) (Corry et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85 : 1841–1843 Nauli SM, Kawanabe Y et al (2008) Endothelial cilia are fluid shear sensors that regulate calcium signaling and nitric oxide production through polycystin-1. Circulation 117 : 1161–1171 O’Neil RG, Heller S (2005) The mechanosensitive nature of TRPV channels. Pflugers Arch 451 : 193–203 Oancea E, Wolfe JT et al (2006) Functional TRPM7 channels accumulate at the plasma membrane in response to fluid flow. Circ Res 98 : 245–253 Obi S, Yamamoto K et al (2009) Fluid shear stress induces arterial differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells.
In the case of membrane voltage, it is directly measured with microelectrodes or patch-clamp recording techniques; membrane voltage is also estimated with voltage-sensitive dyes. A technique for estimating the stress in the subcellular structures is truly required. FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) is introduced to estimate conformational changes in proteins in response to amphipaths (chemical compounds to induce stress in the membrane or proteins) (Corry et al. 2005; Machiyama et al.