Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiology by Francis W. K. Smith Jr. DVM DACVIM(Internal Medicine &

By Francis W. K. Smith Jr. DVM DACVIM(Internal Medicine & Cardiology), Larry P. Tilley DVM DACVIM(Internal Medicine), Mark Oyama DVM DACVIM(Cardiology), Meg M. Sleeper VMD DACVIM(Cardiology)

Impressively good equipped, concise evaluation of clinically correct services completely devoted to the guts and vascular illnesses, their prevention, analysis and treatment.
Yonatan Cohen ,Israel

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These systems consist of a DR plate that is physically mounted in the area of the Bucky tray under the x-ray table top. The plate is then electronically interfaced to both the x-ray machine and a dedicated computer (acquisition station). Of the three forms of digital radiography, DR systems are extremely forgiving as far as technique (kVp and mAs settings) (Figure 2-22). This in turn simplifies a typical technique chart to essentially three or four settings (small, medium, large and extra large) no matter if you are imaging bone, thorax, or abdomen.

Causes of Aortic Arch Enlargement s0400 • PDA; enlargement more abaxial (1 o’clock) u0230 • Aortic stenosis with poststenotic enlargement of the aortic arch; enlargement more axial and cranial (11 o’clock) • Aortic aneurysm (very rare) Differential Diagnosis s0410 • Normal variation in some dogs u0240 • Very common variant in older cats with “lazy” heart conformation; very prominent on the DV projection • Cranial mediastinal mass • Thymus, or the “sail-sign” in young dogs • Cranial mediastinal fat in obese brachycephalic dogs Enlargement of the pulmonary artery s0420 Radiographic Signs s0430 • Lateral projection (see Figure 2-15) u0250 • Protrusion of the craniodorsal heart border • DV projection (see Figure 2-16) • Lateral bulge of the cardiac margin at 1 to 2 o’clock position • Radiographically defined as the pulmonary artery segment (PAS) Causes of Pulmonary Artery Segment s0440 Enlargement • Dirofilariasis u0260 • Pulmonary thrombosis and thromboembolism • Cor pulmonale • Congenital disease: pulmonic stenosis, PDA, septal defects both ventricular and atrial with left-toright shunting Differential Diagnosis s0450 • Previous dirofilariasis infection and treatment u0270 • Rotational (oblique) positional artifact (usually on VD projection) most commonly experienced with deep-chested conformation dogs 40 Section I Diagnosis of Heart Disease s0550 Evaluation of the ­Pulmonary Circulation p0220 Undercirculation Radiographic Signs • Lung field more radiolucent than normal owing to lack of pulmonary vascular volume • Hyperinflation due to hypoxemia or ventilation/ perfusion mismatch • Pulmonary arteries smaller than normal; may be smaller in size when compared with corresponding pulmonary veins s0490 Causes of Pulmonary Undercirculation u0290 • Congenital disease: pulmonic stenosis, te- tralogy of Fallot, reverse PDA (right-to-left shunting) s0500 Differential Diagnosis u0300 • Emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease • Hyperinflation • Pneumothorax • Overexposure • Pulmonary thromboembolism • Hypovolemia, shock (the heart will also be smaller than normal) • Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease); the heart may also be smaller than normal s0510 Overcirculation s0520 Radiographic Signs u0310 • Both the pulmonary arteries and the veins are enlarged • Arteries are frequently larger than the veins • Pulmonary thoracic opacity is increased because of larger vascular volume s0530 Causes of Pulmonary Overcirculation u0320 • Dirofilariasis (arteries are larger than correspond- ing veins) • PDA: both arteries and veins enlarged • Left-to-right shunts (ventricular and atrial septal defects): both arteries and veins enlarged • Congestive heart failure: veins may be larger than arteries if mainly left sided; both arteries and veins enlarged with concurrent left- and rightsided failure • Fluid overload s0540 Differential Diagnosis u0330 • Underexposure • Expiratory phase of respiration Radiographic Diagnosis of Heart Failure s0460 The radiographic diagnosis of heart failure is des0470 pendent upon recognition of imbalances in the blood and fluid distribution within the body.

3) Increased sternal contact of cranial margin. (4) Dorsal elevation and enlargement of the caudal vena cava (CVC). The cardiac silhouette takes on a smoothly contoured circular conformation with obliteration of normal cardiac contour. • Fluid overload: overhydration • Toxicity • Systemic shock • Hypersensitization • Drowning • Increased bronchial markings in some cases s0650 • Pleural effusion • In the dog, this can occur only in very progresp0230 sive or severe forms of left-heart failure; this usually indicates early concurrent left- and right-heart failure.

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