By Homa Katouzian
Iran is an historical country, an oil-exporting financial system and an Islamic Republic. It skilled full-scale revolutions in the twentieth century, the latter of which had huge and significant neighborhood and foreign outcomes, together with an eight-year battle with Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. And now in the twenty-first century, it confronts concerns and studies difficulties that have very important implications for its destiny improvement and exterior relations.
Featuring awesome contributions from prime sociologists, social anthropologists, political scientists and economists within the box of Iranian reviews, this booklet is the 1st to check Iran and its place within the modern world.
In constructing this argument, subject matters tested include:
- social advancements within the nation together with gender relations
- contemporary politics
- international relations
- relations with the USA and Israel
- nuclear guns and effort programmes
- oil and the improvement of the economy.
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Extra info for Iran in the 21st Century (Iranian Studies)
8 While the common struggle against the Shah brought a degree of harmony and cooperation between the Islamist and nationalist trends in the short period before and after the fall of the Pahlavi dynasty, their different political goals and orientations were to come to the fore later on. Prime Minister Bazargan’s provisional government (1979–1980), itself a coalition of religious and nationalist 30 Hamid Ahmadi forces, came into conflict with the radical faction led by prominent Shi’ite clergy. National Front leaders, such as the Foreign Minister, Karim Sanjabi, withdrew from the Bazargan government and took an opposite stance vis-à-vis the fundamentalist policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI).
For a discussion of why the autocratic Chinese model will not work for the Islamic Republic see the op cit piece by Ebrahim Yazdi in Sharq (7 February 2004). 25 This point about the existence of legalized institutions creating oppositional movements to bring about institutional change is well made by Charles Tilly, in comparing racially discriminatory regimes in South Africa, the United States and Brazil. He argues that Brazil, while sustaining as much social and economic inequality by race as the United States, avoided legalizing racial distinctions to anything like the degree of South Africa and the United States.
The two key concerns of the Iranian polity in the past century – national sovereignty and democracy – no longer seem at odds in the minds of a significant number of, if not all, Iranians. This is an important change of mood that has come about gradually, allowing many Iranians to begin the process of leaving behind the elevated role given to foreign powers of averting attempts to bring about democracy in Iran (in particular in 1953). To be sure, harking back to the real or imagined confrontation between internal democracy and imperialism, there are concerns and discussions inside Iran regarding the possibility of the hardliners manoeuvering to strike a ‘grand bargain’ with powerful external players, particularly the US, of course always involving the mediation of the omnipresent British, allowing the hardliners to placate external hostility to their rule.