By F. W. Röllgen (auth.), Professor Dr. Alfred Benninghoven (eds.)
The moment overseas convention on Ion Formation from natural Solids (IFOS II) used to be held on the college of MUnster, Federal Republic of Germa long island, from September 7 to nine, 1982. the topic of the convention was once the swift ly constructing box of ion formation from ~nvolatile, thermally labile organ ic compounds. quick growth has been made during this box within the previous couple of years, quite often as a result of discovery of unforeseen new ionization proces ses comparable to sputtering and laser-induced desorption. the purpose of the convention used to be twofold: to obtain a uncomplicated figuring out of those "soft" ionization strategies at the one hand, and to envision their current and destiny analytical purposes at the different. ~Je sought to carry. jointly scientists operating in primary in addition to utilized learn. The contributors represented such commonly various fields as natural and utilized phys ics and chemistry, biochemistry, nuclear and solid-state physics, drugs, and pharmacology. those lawsuits include all the papers provided on the convention. Six overview papers disguise the basics of other ionization techniques. The authors of those experiences have been requested to offer updated surveys in cluding features of spectra, the effect of excitation parameters, tentative versions for ion formation approaches, and checks in their ana lytical functions. those stories are by way of 26 contributed papers facing extra really expert points of the ionization methods and their analytical applications.
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Additional resources for Ion Formation from Organic Solids: Proceedings of the Second International Conference Münster, Fed. Rep. of Germany September 7–9, 1982
Chern. Soc . Ql, 1609 (1981). 15 N. ~. Knippenbera, F. R. Krueaer, G. Naturforsch 32a, 711 (1977). 16 R. D. Mac fa rl ane, Nucl. Ins tr. and Meth. 198, 75 (1982). 17 R. D. t·1acfarlane and K. Wien (unpublished results). 18 O. Becker, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 198, 53 (1982). 19 R. D. Macfarlane, and B. Sundquist (unpublished results). 20 R. D. r~acfarlane, C. J. I-1cNeal and J. E. Hunt, Adv. in 14ass Spec. 8A, 349 (1979). 21 R. D. Macfarlane and C. J. McNeal, unpublished results. 22 R. D. Macfarlane, Acc.
There are indicati ons that new mechanisms are being manifested in electron emission following massive ion impact, possibly invol ving photon- induced processes [21 J. rlore work on this problem, including a study of different kinds of surfaces and using the massive molecular ion beams now available will be an important part of the effort to extend the mass range. The Friedman study on secondary electron yields for various incident molecular ions is shown in Fig. 7. J W ;:: 18· Z a! SX 10·cm S·· 30 ry 40 50 60 Sooo' 70 ~Wz ~ Study of Secondary Electtron Yield for various ions incident on Cu.
The sensitivity for the quantification of a metal at ultratrace level from a physiological fluid has been reported to improve by one to two orders of magnitude . On the other hand gold coating of the FD emitter surface can be utilized to reduce the catalytic effects of the carbon surface for sensitive organic compounds and to produce FD spectra with strongly reduced fragmentation . Summary and Evaluation An organic chemist might naively say that FD-MS appears to be more a chemical ionization method than chemical ionization (eI) mainly because reactions occur in the condensed (molten) sample layer rather than in the gas phase.