By Dharmendra K. Gupta, Clemens Walther
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Extra info for Impact of Cesium on Plants and the Environment
1998) and Dushenkov et al. (1999), however, in these experiments authors used soils contaminated only artiﬁcially with radionuclides in easily soluble forms (in water solutions). The studies on artiﬁcially contaminated substrata showed the various results of AM fungi impact on radiocaesium transport and its acquisition and accumulation by plants (Dighton and Terry 1996; Entry et al. 1999; Berreck and Haselwandter 2001; Rosen et al. 2005). Cs uptake by plants in the presence of mycorrhiza was either lower (Dighton and Terry 1996; Berreck and Haselwandter 2001; Gyuricza et al.
Based on these reports, it was estimated that signiﬁcant part of radiocaesium isotopes located in the soil is accumulated and retained by fungi in an “immobile” condition for a long time. Due to such continuous upward remobilization, the mycelia of ECM fungi could slow down the vertical migration of radiocaesium in soils and consequently maintain this radionuclide in upper soil layers replete with plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelium. In turn, the radiocaesium immobilized in fungal structures could be transferred by the mycelia to their plant hosts.
Thus, the mycelium biomass may increase in 2–3 times during the growing season (Polaynskaya 1996). Therefore, it is difﬁcult to estimate the corresponding annual production and die back of the mycelium. Taking into account that the average life cycle of fungal mycelium in the soil is about two years, it was assumed that annual mycelium production was about 50 % of the total fungal biomass (Shcheglov et al. 2001). The maximum intensity of 137Cs accumulation in forests ecosystems of Ukrainian Polissya is usually characteristic for all studied fungal species; however they have a signiﬁcant variation of TF average values (Kurbet 2007).