Impact of Cesium on Plants and the Environment by Dharmendra K. Gupta, Clemens Walther

By Dharmendra K. Gupta, Clemens Walther

This e-book presents large and complete wisdom to the researchers/academics who're operating within the box of cesium infected websites, and the effect on crops. This booklet is additionally precious for graduate and undergraduate scholars who're focusing on radioecology or secure disposal of radioactive waste, remediation of legacies and the influence at the surroundings. Radiocesium (137Cs and 134Cs) used to be published into the surroundings because of nuclear guns trying out in Nineteen Fifties and Nineteen Sixties (~1x1018 Bq), and later because of the Chernobyl twist of fate in 1986 (8.5x1016 Bq) and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear energy Plant in 2011 (~1x1017 Bq). 137Cs remains to be of relevance because of its half-life of 30 years. The research of radioisotope 137Cs is necessary, as creation and emission premiums are excessive in comparison to different radioisotopes, as a result of excessive fission yield and excessive volatility.
This ebook includes unique paintings and reports on how cesium is published into the surroundings on translocation from soil to vegetation and additional directly to animals and into the human nutrition chain. Separate chapters concentrate on the powerful half-life of cesium in vegetation and on how various cultivars are responding in accumulation of cesium. different key chapters specialise in cesium effect on unmarried cells to raised vegetation and likewise on remediation measures in addition to on simple mechanism used for remedial ideas and research of move elements. The publication rounds off via contributions on cesium uptake and translocation and its toxicity in vegetation after the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents.

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1998) and Dushenkov et al. (1999), however, in these experiments authors used soils contaminated only artificially with radionuclides in easily soluble forms (in water solutions). The studies on artificially contaminated substrata showed the various results of AM fungi impact on radiocaesium transport and its acquisition and accumulation by plants (Dighton and Terry 1996; Entry et al. 1999; Berreck and Haselwandter 2001; Rosen et al. 2005). Cs uptake by plants in the presence of mycorrhiza was either lower (Dighton and Terry 1996; Berreck and Haselwandter 2001; Gyuricza et al.

Based on these reports, it was estimated that significant part of radiocaesium isotopes located in the soil is accumulated and retained by fungi in an “immobile” condition for a long time. Due to such continuous upward remobilization, the mycelia of ECM fungi could slow down the vertical migration of radiocaesium in soils and consequently maintain this radionuclide in upper soil layers replete with plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelium. In turn, the radiocaesium immobilized in fungal structures could be transferred by the mycelia to their plant hosts.

Thus, the mycelium biomass may increase in 2–3 times during the growing season (Polaynskaya 1996). Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the corresponding annual production and die back of the mycelium. Taking into account that the average life cycle of fungal mycelium in the soil is about two years, it was assumed that annual mycelium production was about 50 % of the total fungal biomass (Shcheglov et al. 2001). The maximum intensity of 137Cs accumulation in forests ecosystems of Ukrainian Polissya is usually characteristic for all studied fungal species; however they have a significant variation of TF average values (Kurbet 2007).

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