By Rosana Barbosa
In Immigration and Xenophobia Rosana Barbosa discusses Portuguese migration to Rio de Janeiro from 1822 to 1850 as an important point of the city's heritage. throughout the first half the 19th century, many Portuguese fled the tough fiscal and social stipulations in Portugal for larger fiscal possibilities in post-independence Brazil, which was once experiencing a increase that used to be fuelled by way of such commodities as espresso.
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Additional resources for Immigration and Xenophobia: Portuguese Immigrants in Early 19th Century Rio de Janeiro
3. Arquivo Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Apresentação de Passaportes de Estrangeiros na Polícia. Códice 381, volumes 1–16. 4. Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, História Geral da Civilização Brasileira. O Brasil Monárquico, Tomo II, Vol. 4 (São Paulo: Difel, 1964), 209–210. Sacuntala de Miranda. “Emigração e Fluxos de Capital, 1870–1914,” in Emigração/Imigração em Portugal, ed. Maria Beatriz Nizza da Silva and others (Lisboa: Fragmentos, 1993), 55. Miriam Halpern Pereira, A Política Portuguesa de Emigração, 1850–1930 (Lisboa: A Regra do Jogo, 1981), 20.
Códice 378. 4. Arquivo Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Apresentação de Passaportes de Portugueses na Polícia. Códice 379. 5. Macaulay, Dom Pedro, 88 6. Alves, “Os Brasileiros. 17. 7. Karasch, Slave Life, 63 8. Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo. Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros. Livro 721. 16 de maio de 1842. 9. Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo. Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros. Livro 722. 1 de setembro de 1846. 10. Arquivo Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Mapa da População do Rio de Janeiro. Ministério do Império.
4 Portugal was a dependent mother country that failed to generate internal investment from the profits brought from Brazil. 5 Portuguese industries were incapable of competing in a free market economy with the mechanized industries of other European countries, mainly Great Britain. In 1834, the Portuguese consul in Rio de Janeiro, João Baptista Moreira, wrote that, of four hundred Portuguese ships that were used in the commerce with Brazil during the colonial period, fewer than one hundred were still active.