Hungary - Well-Informed in Budapest

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Since in Sībawayhi’s view the mood markers -u and -a are zawāʾid which form the fijinal limit of the imperfect verb, the endings -ni and -na corresponding to them also form the fijinal limit of this category of verbs, and hence are classifijied as zawāʾid. 9). 3–4). 1. 76 the concept of kalima in old arabic grammar 29 that the long vowels preceding these endings in -īna, -āni and -ūna occur before the fijinal limit of the above verb forms, and hence are also classifijied as zawāʾid. 78 This classfijication attests that the morphological consideration in the classifijication of morphemes is decisive: although pronouns are usually classifijied as nouns belonging to the category of kalim, in the above endings they are conceived of as zawāʾid, since they precede the mood markers, which are conceived of as the fijinal limit of the imperfect verb.

2), a feminine form referring to a subject in the plural meaning ‘they will descend’. 16. 15–16. 11–12. Cf. 16. For hāʾāt at-taʾnīṯ ‘the hāʾ’s [denoting] the feminine’, see ibid. This ending is called al-hāʾ since its form in pause is -ah. 14. Cf. 12–13. 9–12. 9). 5. 15–18. the concept of kalima in old arabic grammar 27 a. 69 b. 70 c. 71 d. 4 The Division of Morphemes Classifijied as zawāʾid It is inferred that the morphemes classifijied as zawaʾid are divided into two main groups: (1) morphemes conceived of as an integral part of the pattern of the word where they are included; (2) morphemes occurring as sufffijixes of nouns and imperfect verbs.

M. Sharon. Jerusalem: Cana & Leiden: Brill, 423-446. ——. 2000. “The Meaning of Ḥarf Ǧāʾa li-Maʿnan in Sībawayhi’s al-Kitāb”. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 24, 22–45. ——. 2007. “Kalima”. Encyclopaedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. 545–548. Nöldeke, Th. 1904. Beiträge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft. Strassburg. Wright, W. 1951. A Grammar of the Arabic Language, 2 vols. Cambridge. WHAT IS A KALIMA? ʾASTARĀBĀḎĪ’S ANSWER* Pierre Larcher Introduction The choice of the present subject undoubtedly derives from the questions aroused in the occasion of this fijirst colloquium of Arabic linguistics.

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