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Since in Sībawayhi’s view the mood markers -u and -a are zawāʾid which form the fĳinal limit of the imperfect verb, the endings -ni and -na corresponding to them also form the fĳinal limit of this category of verbs, and hence are classifĳied as zawāʾid. 9). 3–4). 1. 76 the concept of kalima in old arabic grammar 29 that the long vowels preceding these endings in -īna, -āni and -ūna occur before the fĳinal limit of the above verb forms, and hence are also classifĳied as zawāʾid. 78 This classfĳication attests that the morphological consideration in the classifĳication of morphemes is decisive: although pronouns are usually classifĳied as nouns belonging to the category of kalim, in the above endings they are conceived of as zawāʾid, since they precede the mood markers, which are conceived of as the fĳinal limit of the imperfect verb.
2), a feminine form referring to a subject in the plural meaning ‘they will descend’. 16. 15–16. 11–12. Cf. 16. For hāʾāt at-taʾnīṯ ‘the hāʾ’s [denoting] the feminine’, see ibid. This ending is called al-hāʾ since its form in pause is -ah. 14. Cf. 12–13. 9–12. 9). 5. 15–18. the concept of kalima in old arabic grammar 27 a. 69 b. 70 c. 71 d. 4 The Division of Morphemes Classifĳied as zawāʾid It is inferred that the morphemes classifĳied as zawaʾid are divided into two main groups: (1) morphemes conceived of as an integral part of the pattern of the word where they are included; (2) morphemes occurring as sufffĳixes of nouns and imperfect verbs.
M. Sharon. Jerusalem: Cana & Leiden: Brill, 423-446. ——. 2000. “The Meaning of Ḥarf Ǧāʾa li-Maʿnan in Sībawayhi’s al-Kitāb”. Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 24, 22–45. ——. 2007. “Kalima”. Encyclopaedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. 545–548. Nöldeke, Th. 1904. Beiträge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft. Strassburg. Wright, W. 1951. A Grammar of the Arabic Language, 2 vols. Cambridge. WHAT IS A KALIMA? ʾASTARĀBĀḎĪ’S ANSWER* Pierre Larcher Introduction The choice of the present subject undoubtedly derives from the questions aroused in the occasion of this fĳirst colloquium of Arabic linguistics.