Historical Dictionary of Mauritania (3rd Edition) by Anthony G. Pazzanita

By Anthony G. Pazzanita

Publish yr note: initially released in 1996
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Mauritania is bordered by way of Senegal within the south, Mali within the east, Algeria within the a long way northeast, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the north. Comprised commonly of monstrous stretches of wasteland, this younger state has escaped the ravages of the violent interstate and civil conflicts that experience so bedeviled Africa. Mauritanian society possesses historic antecedents and a common non secular religion that has been practiced over numerous centuries.

These features have given the rustic a occasionally fragile yet really resilient experience of nationwide id, which has survived into the twenty first century within the face of strong political, nearby, ethnic/racial, and tribal rivalries when you consider that its independence in 1960. An economic climate principally founded at the export of uncooked fabrics, a vulnerable agricultural region, and a harsh weather in so much components extra upload to the demanding situations confronting all Mauritanians.

The third edition of the Historical Dictionary of Mauritania via its chronology, introductory essay, maps, bibliography, and hundreds of thousands of cross-referenced dictionary entries on very important individuals, locations, occasions, associations, and important political, monetary, social, and cultural aspects_provides a big reference on Mauritania.

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But industry itself remained the great ‘working academy’; the workshops which supplied the mines and cotton mills, produced the pioneers of the marine engineering and locomotive building industries. Watt had pioneered his condensing steam engine in Scotland in the 1760s, but needed the capital and market of the west Midlands. The steamship, on the other hand, was a native achievement, pionered by William Symington on the Forth and Clyde in 1803. Scots engineers like the Napier brothers dominated the paddle-steamer era when the narrow seas and the mail routes were conquered, and it was the Clyde again, in the 1850s and 1860s, which made the technical breakthroughs—the compound engine and the surface condenser—that enabled the long-distance freight steamer to oust the sailing ship.

The Conservatives had shrewdly managed the Scottish electorate. With Ireland semi-independent, they no longer had to parlay with the nationalists at Westminster, and aligned themselves with the revived Protestant sectarianism which had grown up in the shadow of Stormont, the seat of devolved Ulster. Opposition to ‘Irish’ Labour, which had made strong gains in councils and the education authorities founded by the Education (Scotland) Act of 1918, was a vote-winner, particularly with the ex-Liberal bourgeoisie.

The survival of the Scottish iron industry, and its conversion to steel production, depended on the market provided by the heavy industries of the Clyde, where shipbuilding had been joined by locomotive building and structural engineering. Resources and markets were now finite: the economy had evolved in such a way that it had created a dictatorship as rigid as that once enjoyed by the Dundases in Scottish politics. William Cobbett anathematised ‘improved’ Scotland, as he rode through it in the 1830s.

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