Field guide to lens design by Julie Bentley

By Julie Bentley

The method of designing lenses is either an paintings and a technology. whereas developments within the box during the last centuries have performed a lot to rework it from the previous class to the latter, a lot of the lens layout strategy is still encapsulated within the event and data of veterans. This SPIE box consultant offers a operating reference for working towards physicists, engineers, and scientists for decoding the nuances of uncomplicated lens layout.

The publication starts with an overview of the overall method earlier than delving into aberrations, simple lens layout varieties, and optimization. a complete part is dedicated to thoughts for bettering lens functionality. Sections on tolerancing, stray mild, and optical platforms are by means of an appendix protecting comparable subject matters reminiscent of optical fabrics, nonimaging ideas, designing for sampled imaging, and ray tracing fundamentals.

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There are also two “new” fifth-order aberrations: elliptical coma and oblique spherical aberration. During optimization, the best performance is typically achieved by balancing low-order aberrations with high-order aberrations. The residual errors then will show an inflection in the transverse ray, distortion, or field curves, indicating a sign change between the low-order and high-order aberration contributions. org/terms 26 Fundamentals of Optical Design Intrinsic and Induced Aberrations Intrinsic aberrations are aberrations associated with a single surface in an optical system and can be calculated solely from paraxial ray angles and heights at a given surface.

Org/terms 22 Fundamentals of Optical Design Distortion Distortion is an aberration in which the magnification varies over the image height. Object points are imaged to perfect points with no blur, but straight lines in the object become curved lines in the image. Design programs do not include distortion as part of their wavefront or transverse ray plots. They instead plot distortion as either a percentage versus field coordinate H or as a deviation from a grid of points. The percent of distortion is usually calculated from the difference in height between a real and a paraxial chief ray for a given field point; however, a centroid distortion (using either the geometric spot or PSF centroid location instead) may be a more relevant evaluation for a particular lens/application.

Primarily reduces axial color, lateral color, and Petzval, although the extra degrees of freedom can also be used to correct other aberrations. org/terms 52 Improving a Design Diffraction-Limited Performance During the design improvement process, performance targets are useful for guiding the process and ultimately knowing when to stop optimizing. ” However, different definitions of diffraction-limited exist, so a designer should clarify the intent of the statement. Strictly speaking, a diffraction-limited lens is limited solely by diffraction and refers to a zero-wave RMS OPD; however, these criteria are rarely the intent of a “diffraction-limited” specification.

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