By Anjali Patel (auth.), Anjali Patel (eds.)
Over the prior two decades, Catalysis through Heteropolyacids (HPAs) has bought extensive consciousness and ended in new and promising advancements either at educational and commercial point. particularly, heterogeneous catalysis is especially beautiful since it more often than not satisfies such a lot of eco-friendly chemistry’s necessities. by means of emphasizing the improvement of 3rd new release catalysts, this quantity offers traits and possibilities in educational and business examine. The e-book appeals to postgraduates, researchers, and chemists operating within the box of environmentally benign catalysts in addition to catalytic processes.
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Extra resources for Environmentally Benign Catalysts: For Clean Organic Reactions
Addition of further V may lead to the formation of amorphous material like [VO]2+ species in the secondary structure, which also helps enhance the redox behavior of the catalysts. Addition of two V atoms leads to lower thermal stability of the cubic secondary structure of AMPA catalysts; it may be due to the replacement of ammonium cations by other vanadium oxo species. 4. Addition of one Bi atom enhanced the thermal stability of the AMPA catalysts, contrary to the general observation that the addition of guest metal reduces the thermal stability of the parent compound by formation of lacunary species.
22 K. Narasimha Rao et al. 1 Ammoxidation of 2-Methylpyrazine (MP) The ammoxidation is basically an oxidation reaction carried out in the presence of ammonia. The reaction is exothermic and is generally carried out in fixed bed reactors at atmospheric pressure. Cyanopyrazine (CP) is the main product of reaction with maximum selectivity approaching 85–100 %. Two other side reactions can also take place; the demethylation of MP gives rise to pyrazine formation, whereas total oxidation leads to formation of carbon dioxide and water vapor.
This catalyst, however, produces 10–25 % byproducts (pyrazine and others) depending on the process conditions. It appears from the open literature that in the ammoxidation reactions attention has been focused on obtaining maximum activity from the catalysts rather than obtaining maximum selectivity, an approach not favorable for development of environmentally acceptable processes. If the molybdenum phosphate based heteropoly acid catalyst can offer maximum selectivity to CP, the process could be acceptable .