By Janne Haaland Matláry (auth.)
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Extra resources for Energy Policy in the European Union
Since Italy is so dependent on imported fuel there is a strong emphasis on energy efficiency. This is also good in relation to environmental protection, which is another of Italy's main goals, along with development of the few indigenous resources that do exist, diversification of suppliers and increased competitiveness of the supply systems. The lEA comments that 'The government has made headway in restructuring ENI and ENEL in preparation for privatisation and in establishing a new regulatory framework, including a concession agreement for ENEL and the planned creation of a separate government body to streamline regulation of the electricity supply industry' (lEA, 1994, p.
The group's report, called the Mandil Report, was published in 1994. 3 Total net nnports (D1toe) 1992 Austria Belgium Britain Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Portugal Spain Sweden Source: Total Coal Oil Gas Electr. DOD1estic prod. 1 Policies (Paris: lEA/OECD, 1994). 6 Adapted from Review of Energy Policies (Paris: IEA/OECD, 1994). 1 38 Energy Policy in the European Union industries. According to the report, Electricite de France should lose its monopoly on generation, and both companies should only partially retain their import and export monopoly rights.
Although the member governments supported the idea of an IEM, they had strong reservations about the parts of it that directly affected their domestic energy sectors. In other words they supported the general concept, seeing that it might bring advantages to energy trade, but were wary oflosing national control over energy policy. Despite their deregulatory content the IEM proposals implied an increased role for the EC in energy policy: Firstly, third-party access and even the 'weaker' open access decision in 1990 implied that the Commission would oversee and define the conditions and tariffs for such access.