By Vivien Gornitz
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series)
One objective has been to understand global trends in d18O and / or d13C of the marine reservoir as a whole through a specific time interval of interest, in order to interpret climate, global ice volume and glacial history or changes in primary productivity, particularly those associated with biotic radiations or crises.
1994. Lipid biomarkers of the Haptophyta. C. ), The Haptophyte Algae. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 351–377. , 1998. Genetic and physiological influences on the alkenone / alkenonate versus growth temperature realtionship in Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 62, 51–68. , 1998. An effect of dissolved nutrient concentrations on alkenone-based temperature estimates. Paleoceanography, 13, 122–126. , 1986. Alkenones in Cretaceous black shales, Blake-Bahama Basin, western North Atlantic, Org.
In addition to a drop in lake level ~2,200 BC, at around the time of the collapse of the Akkadian empire mentioned above, Enzel et al. (2003) associate a drop in lake level between the late fifth and late eighth centuries with the decline of the Byzantine empire in the Near East and Arab expansion out of Saudi Arabia. , 2004). Examining Dead Sea lake level variations further back in time, Migowski et al. (2006) link the ~8,100–8,200 yBP drought with the decline of the earliest Jericho township.