Encyclopedia of Nineteenth Century Thought by Gregory Claeys

By Gregory Claeys

Encyclopedia of 19th Century Thought offers crucial details on, and a severe interpretation of, nineteenth-century inspiration and nineteenth-century thinkers. The undertaking takes as its temporal boundary the interval 1789 to 1914. Encyclopedia of 19th Century Thought basically covers social and political considering, yet key entries additionally survey technology, faith, legislations, artwork, options of modernity, the physique and overall healthiness, etc, and thereby consider all the key advancements within the highbrow background of the interval. The encyclopedia is alphabetically geared up, and is composed of:

* imperative entries, divided into rules (4000 phrases) and individuals (2500 words)
* subsidiary entries of one thousand phrases, that are fullyyt biographical
* informational entries of 500 phrases, that are additionally biographical.

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The issue has not yet been entirely settled. Reconstruction During and after the war, there was a brief period when radical theorists proposed not merely ending slavery and giving male ex-slaves the vote, but went so far as to propose the enfranchisement of women and the integration of ex-slaves into the wider society. The intellectual leader of the Radical Republicans was Thaddeus Stevens (1792–1868), who was particularly concerned with the possibility of redistributing Southern land to exslaves so as to develop a black yeomanry because he believed that in addition to the vote, which he considered a minor issue, blacks needed equality of opportunity and equality before the law.

Blumenbach’s inquiries inspired the work of many followers, among them James Cowles Prichard (1786–1848), considered the founder of English anthropology, with his Eastern Origins of the Celtic Nations (1831) and Researches into the Physical History of Mankind (1836–47), and Jean Baptiste, Chevalier Lamarck (1744–1829), author of the Philosophie zoologique (1809). HUXLEY (1825–95), leading British evolutionist; and Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902), the anti-Darwinian craniologist who carried out extensive surveys of the physical characteristics of German schoolchildren.

The latter, a group led by evangelicals and Quakers, was a humanitarian body that campaigned against slavery in the colonies, and much of this sentiment accompanied the interest of the ESL in studying ‘savage’ and ‘primitive’ societies. The ESL sought to explain the origins of human beings through culture, language and archaeology, as well as through physical traits. It believed, in other words, in evolution, and in the unity of mankind. Only a few years after its foundation, the ESL’s premises were being challenged by the new emphasis on the analysis of physical characteristics.

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