By Hari Singh Nalwa, Foreword by Richard E. Smalley
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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Volume 7
Note that the onset of tip deﬂection requires a threshold amplitude. 0x10 resolved. To translate these tip-deﬂection curves into pixilated mechanical image maps, lock-in ampliﬁcation is used to translate the area under each curve into a raster-scan pixel intensity. Determination of the sample modulus from these data can be carried out by mapping the amplitude response of the tip deﬂection to extract the functional dependence of the threshold amplitude versus Fo [33, 35, 39]. Extracting the amplitude variation of the “kink” (Fig.
65 nm for (n 0) and (2n n) tube bundles. Strain energies for these ropes were calculated, and Young’s moduli of 640, 648, and 673 GPa for the (n n), (n 0), and (2n n) ropes, respectively, were obtained. The comparison between the bending moduli calculated in this work and Young’s moduli of other techniques is complicated by a dimensional inconsistency. Although the strain energies are deﬁned conventionally, Goddard and coworkers report the bending moduli in units of gigapascals, and do not deﬁne the normalization of the wall thickness required for conventional deﬁnitions of .
The linear portion of the stress–strain curve thus generated was used to directly measure E. 23 TPa. Akita and coworkers used a slightly more elegant approach by attaching Nanomechanics of Nanoscale Materials an MWNT segment directly to a micromachined cantilever while using a second cantilever applied to the tube to carry out compressive strain testing. 46 TPa (no errors were quoted). Using an experimental approach similar to Treacy and co-workers to extract elastic moduli from nanotubes, Gao considered MWNTs grown pyrolytically .