By Rosemary G. Gillespie, David A. Clague
Islands have captured the mind's eye of scientists and the general public for centuries—unique and infrequent environments, their isolation makes them usual laboratories for ecology and evolution. This authoritative, alphabetically prepared reference, that includes greater than 2 hundred succinct articles by means of best scientists from around the globe, presents vast insurance of the entire island sciences. yet what precisely is an island? the amount editors outline it right here as any discrete habitat remoted from different habitats by way of inhospitable atmosphere. The Encyclopedia of Islands examines many such insular settings—oceanic and continental islands in addition to locations similar to caves, mountaintops, and whale falls on the backside of the sea. This crucial, one-stop source, widely illustrated with colour images, transparent maps, and pictures will introduce island technological know-how to a large viewers and spur extra study on a number of the planet's so much interesting habitats.
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This distinction is not shown by the bryophytes, perhaps reﬂecting their greater dispersal ability. Variation in dispersal ability also accounts for differences in the biogeography of groups found on the Southern Ocean islands. For those taxa with limited dispersal ability, biogeographic afﬁnities of the islands tend to be to the nearest continental landmass, whilst in the case of more mobile taxa, distributions tend to be more circumAntarctic, with mean annual temperature, rather than identity of the nearest landmass, being more signiﬁcant a correlate of the composition of the assemblages.
2007. The causes of evolutionary radiations in archipelagoes: passerine birds in the Lesser Antilles. American Naturalist 169: 285–297. Schluter, D. 2000. The ecology of adaptive radiation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seehausen, O. 2006. African cichlid ﬁsh: a model system in adaptive radiation research. Proceedings of the Royal Society B—Biological Sciences 273: 1987–1998. West-Eberhard, M. J. 2003. Developmental plasticity and evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. ALEUTIAN ISLANDS SEE PACIFIC REGION A D A P T I V E R A D I AT I O N 7 AMSTERDAM SEE INDIAN REGION ANAGENESIS TOD F.
This could potentially lead to a cascade of genetic changes leading to evolutionary differentiation, an idea ﬁrst formulated in the “genetic revolution” model, A D A P T I V E R A D I AT I O N 5 are formed through adaptive shifts is generally considered to require competition between similar taxa. The ecological theory of adaptive radiation suggests that speciation and the evolution of morphological and ecological differences are caused by divergent natural selection resulting from interspeciﬁc competition coupled with environmental differences.