Encyclopedia of Global Environment (5 Volumes) by Ted Munn

By Ted Munn

This multidisciplinary reference is absolutely extra like 5 encyclopedias which concentration in activate actual and chemical dimensions, biology and ecology, reasons and effects, reaction to worldwide environmental switch, and social and monetary dimensions. every one starts with a bunch of essays on significant issues in that box, which jointly supply an advent in addition to a kick off point for exploring the encyclopedia. From there, alphabetically prepared shorter articles describe numerous subject matters, courses, definitions, acronyms, and biographies of participants to the field-including the 3 most up-to-date environmental Nobel Laureates. The great clinical articles symbolize present knowledge-sometimes from novel viewpoints-and are written on the point of journals comparable to medical American and AMBIO. every one starts with a couple of italicized paragraphs describing why the subject is necessary and the place it suits into the wider elements of worldwide swap. pattern themes contain agricultural subsidies and environmental swap, artwork and the surroundings, biomass gas strength improvement, weather feedbacks, Earth First!, environmental cadmium within the nutrition chain, environmental adjustments pushed by means of civil clash and struggle, eco-friendly funding, land reclamation from seas, version simulations of current and historic climates, Montreal Protocol, no regrets precept, distant sensing, and technological society and its relation to international environmental swap.

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The other main fluid component of the climate system is the oceans. The oceans contain slightly more than 97% of the roughly 1•3 ð 109 km3 of water on Earth. 7%), which has substantial implications for climate. Ocean currents can be • 1 m s 1 in strong currents like the Gulf Stream, but are more typically a few cm s 1 at the ocean s surface. The average depth of the ocean is 3795 m. The oceans are stratified opposite to the atmosphere, with warmest waters near the surface. The cold deep abyssal ocean turns over only very slowly on time scales of hundreds to thousands of years.

The other main fluid component of the climate system is the oceans. The oceans contain slightly more than 97% of the roughly 1•3 ð 109 km3 of water on Earth. 7%), which has substantial implications for climate. Ocean currents can be • 1 m s 1 in strong currents like the Gulf Stream, but are more typically a few cm s 1 at the ocean s surface. The average depth of the ocean is 3795 m. The oceans are stratified opposite to the atmosphere, with warmest waters near the surface. The cold deep abyssal ocean turns over only very slowly on time scales of hundreds to thousands of years.

Looking directly at the Sun, the Earth í2 receives an average radiation of 1368 W m at this distance. This value is referred to as the total solar irradiance; this value used to be called the "solar constant" even though it does vary by small amounts with 14 THE EARTH SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DIMENSIONS OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE the sunspot cycle and related changes on the Sun (see Solar Irradiance and Climate, Volume 1). The Earth s shape is close to that of an oblate spheroid, with an average radius of 6371 km, but it varies from 6378 km at the equator to 6357 km at the poles.

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