Encyclopedia of Genetics Research by Michael T. Loback

By Michael T. Loback

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2004). Over-expressed Oct4 in mouse ES cells leads to a fate of extraembryonic endoderm differentiation. , 2000). , 1998). Oct4 regulates the process in collaboration with its co-factors. Oct4 plays its role in the ES cell renewal and differentiation by adjusting its expression level to maintain a constant ratio to its co-factors. , 2003). , 2003). Sox2 encodes transcription factors with a single HMG DNA-binding domain expressed in the pluripotent lineages of early embryos. , 2003). The differentiation of ES cells shows down-regulated Sox2 expression.

Up to this stage, the embryo is initially sexually indifferent. With the proliferation of somatic cell lineages and germ cells, the fate decision to a testis or an ovary is triggered by a certain hierarchy of transcription factors or signals, resulting in the differentiation of supporting cell precursors, and the secretion of a hormone. 14 Hongshi Yu and Shuliang Cui Figure 3. Gonadal development in mammals. During the early development, the gonad is undifferentiated, composed of genital ridge and mesonephros.

1994) to stimulate cell differentiation through the mediation of STAT3, which is controversial to its action in ES cells, implying that the LIF-STAT3 action in ES cells selectively activate the transduction signals in favor repression of cell differentiation. The lack of the evidence of direct linkage between normal expansion of the epiblast earl and Gene Regulation and Early Developmental Gene Expression in Vertebrate 9 the requirement of the factors, such as LIF, gp130 and STAT3 in embryogenesis, suggests either the expansion of epiblast is autonomous or controlled by other signaling pathway.

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