Encyclopedia of African History by Kevin Shillington

By Kevin Shillington

The Encyclopedia of African heritage comprises round 1,000 entries overlaying the widest plausible variety of issues in African historical past. It covers the total continent of Africa-- not only sub-Saharan--from earliest occasions to the current. the choice of entries contains not just well-established themes, but additionally seems on the social, fiscal, linguistic, anthropological, and political matters which are at present being re-evaluated or newly spread out for historic research via contemporary study and booklet. it's an up to date paintings of reference for all those who find themselves inquisitive about educating, studying, or learning Africa and its background, in addition to the intense common reader. the 2 volumes additionally include illustrations, maps, and acceptable indexes.

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In 1890 he was made counselor to the court of appeals and in 1892 was instrumental in establishing the Muslim Benevolent Society for the benefit of Egypt’s poor. In 1895 he was asked to set up a council for the reform of al-Azhar’s administration and curriculum, a project that was only partially successful due to the opposition he encountered from 6 that institution’s conservative scholars (‘ulama). The apogee of ‘Abduh’s career came in 1899 when he was appointed mufti, which made him the authoritative interpreter of Islamic law (Shari’a) throughout Egypt.

However, due to the intervention of a liberal government ministry, he was allowed the following year to assume the editorship of the official government gazette al-Waqa’i al-Misriyya (Egyptian Events). He was exiled in 1882, but allowed to return to Egypt in 1888. He died in 1905. Further Reading Adams, Charles C. Islam and Modernism in Egypt. London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1933. Amin, Osman. Muhammad ‘Abouh, Charles Wendell, trans. Washington, DC: American Council of Learned Societies, 1953.

London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1933. Amin, Osman. Muhammad ‘Abouh, Charles Wendell, trans. Washington, DC: American Council of Learned Societies, 1953. Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939, 2nd edition, London: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Kerr, Malcolm. Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of Muhammad ‘Abouh and Rashid Rida, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966. Abu Madian, al-Shadhili, and the Spread of Sufism in the Maghrib Mysticism manifested itself in Islam as Sufism, of which there were two schools, the one of Bestami, the other of Junaid.

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