By Wei Sha, Xiaomin Wu, Kim Ghee Keong
In contrast to electroplating, electroless plating permits uniform deposits of coating fabrics over all surfaces, despite dimension, form and electric conductivity. Electroless copper and nickel-phosphorus deposits supply protecting and practical coatings in industries as different as electronics, car, aerospace and chemical engineering. This ebook discusses the most recent learn in electroless depositions. After an introductory bankruptcy, half one specializes in electroless copper depositions reviewing such parts as floor morphology and residual rigidity, modeling floor constitution, adhesion power of electroless copper deposit, electric resistivity and functions of electroless copper deposits. half is going directly to examine electroless nickel-phosphorus depositions with chapters at the crystallization of nickel-phosphorus deposits, modeling the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of nickel-phosphorus deposits, synthetic neural community (ANN) modeling of crystallization temperatures, hardness evolution of nickel-phosphorus deposits and functions of electroless nickel-phosphorus plating.
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Extra resources for Electroless Copper and Nickel-Phosphorus Plating: Processing, Characterisation and Modelling (Woodhead Publishing in Materials)
These lamella appearances might simply be caused by the effect from lamella pearlite in the stainless-steel substrate, rather than from real copper grains in the deposits. Small voids that are probably caused by the hydrogen bubbles during the plating process are also in the deposit, distributed unevenly across the surface. The surface microstructure of the solution-side of the as-deposited electroplated copper is very different from that of the substrate-side (Fig. 12). The fine structure of the solution-side does not show any voids.
The surface morphology of the substrate is fully covered by the copper deposit and can hardly be discerned on the surface of the deposit. By reducing the temperature, the copper deposit tends to form a smoother surface. The formaldehyde low concentration low temperature solution has a less smooth surface because of the large sized diamond pyramid structures forming at the very beginning of the plating process. The diamond pyramid structures from the low temperature formaldehyde solutions consist of virtually pure copper and only a small amount of oxygen possibly from contamination during analysis.
Due to the flat surface of the stainless steel substrate, the deposit on both the substrate side and the surface side is flat and even. When cut by scissors, without polishing and etching, the cross-section shows fracture patterns of the deposit (Fig. 6). 6 The SEM image of the cross-section of the stand-alone deposit from the formaldehyde low concentration low temperature solution. The white circles mark some of the voids in the cross-section.