Electrochemical Methods in Soil and Water Research by T.R. Yu and G. L. Ji (Auth.)

By T.R. Yu and G. L. Ji (Auth.)

This publication bargains with the foundations and practices of electrochemical tools as utilized to soil and water learn, fairly those who might be performed within the box. starting with the root of potentiometric equipment, together with electrode strength, rules of potentiometric tools, reference electrodes, liquid-junction capability and features of ion-selective electrodes, the writer then proceeds to explain the homes and functions of varied kinds of potentiometric electrodes, together with glass, solid-state membrane, liquid-state membrane, oxidation-reduction and fuel sensors. a unique bankruptcy dedicated to ordinarily encountered difficulties will reduction readers no longer accustomed to potentiometric tools. Voltammetric equipment, conductometric tools and electrochemical tools also are mentioned

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Fried, I. (1973) The Chemistry of Electrode Processes. Academic Press, London. Glasstone, S. (1946) An Introduction to Electrochemistry. Y. Ives, D. J. G. and Janz, G. J. ) (1961) Reference Electrodes. Y. Kolthoff, I. M. et al (1969) Quantitative Chemical Analysis. 4th ed. MacMillan, London. Kortum, G. and Bockris, J. O'M. (1951) Textbook of Electrochemistry. Y. 44 1 Electrode Potential Koryta, J. (1975) Ion-selective Electrodes. Cambridge University Press, London. Koryta, J. (1982) Ions, Electrodes, and Membranes.

34 1 Electrode Potential Equation (1-83) is also called Tafel equation. (Β) Overpotential very small When overpotential is smaller than about 5 mV, the first two terms of the expansion of the exponent of equation (1-78) are: l = lr 1 (1-85) V-ß)F„)Ji-£Zn + RT RT { After rearrangement, we can get: RT (1-86) i i0F This equation means that when the overpotential is very small it will be related to current density linearly. The two relationships expressed in equations (1-83) and (1-86) can also be seen graphically from Fig.

In order to make the solution suitable for the determination with the electrode, sometimes other substances, such as a complexing agent, are added to the ionic strength adjustor. For example, in the determination of fluoride with a fluoride ion-selective electrode, the ionic strength adjustor, known as TISAB, is composed of a mixture of sodium chloride, acetic acid, sodium acetate and sodium citrate. The function of sodium chloride is to keep a constant ionic strength. 5, thus avoiding the interference of OH* ions.

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