By Miroslav M. Begovic (auth.), Miroslav M. Begovic (eds.)
Electric transmission networks are one of the biggest human-made engineering structures: for instance, the transmission community within the usa covers over 300,000 km of traces and is served via 500 businesses (electric utilities). In sharp distinction to the very incremental advancements of the final century, transmission and keep an eye on applied sciences skilled a big leap forward before everything of the 21st century. The fast progress of latest power new release applied sciences (renewables), major advances in info processing utilized to process tracking, making plans, operation, keep watch over, and defense, radical adjustments in distribution networks, and key shifts in finish person habit (advanced metering and regulate of call for reaction) have mixed to supply the trendy built-in electric infrastructure ordinarily often called the shrewdpermanent grid.
Featuring state of the art, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability technological know-how and Technology, this e-book presents a close advent to pick key issues which span power know-how, engineering, and concrete making plans. all over the world specialists talk about the mixing of electrical strength infrastructure into the wider severe infrastructures of the trendy international and their numerous interdependencies. devoted chapters conceal particular issues starting from underground transmission and distribution, to strength and water interdependence, and their implications for city parts. assurance additionally contains the major function of latest coverage tasks as catalysts of change.
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Extra resources for Electrical Transmission Systems and Smart Grids: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology
Reverse flow protection detects the reversal from the normal direction of power and/or current flow. This type of protection is only suitable for cases where the amount of distributed generation in relation to the amount of load is small enough that under normal un-faulted conditions the flow from the supply line is always into the distribution substation. Reverse flow occurs when a supply line fault causes voltage depression to the point where load current essentially disappears, yet the distributed generators continue to source current.
The CTs should be identical in type and ratio. With no fault, the current flowing into the bus is balanced by the current flowing out of the bus (a pattern that is matched in the CT secondary circuit), and thus little or no current flows through the over-current relay. The stabilizing resistor tends to prevent large external fault currents from saturating the CT of the faulted feeder and producing erroneous differential current. Zone-interlocked schemes (also known as bus-blocking schemes) employ an over-current relay measuring infeed current from the main transformer.
However, there are typically many more feeders to measure than in transformer differential applications, so a relay designed for bus protection is required. Low impedance bus differential protections without through-current restraint have been deployed, but often have trouble with CT saturation, causing unnecessary tripping. High impedance bus differential protections include a simple over-current relay with a large stabilizing resister connected in series. The relay current is from the parallel connection of the secondary windings of CTs measuring all bus connections.