By G. Espinoza
Espinoza's paintings illuminates how schooling was once the location of ideological and political fight in Peru in the course of its early years as an autonomous nation. Spanning a hundred years and discussing either city and rural schooling, it indicates how university investment, curricula, and governance grew to become a part of the cultural technique of state-building in Peru.
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Extra resources for Education and the State in Modern Peru: Primary Schooling in Lima, 1821–c. 1921
Reduction of state subventions, partisan conflicts, and unwillingness of regional and local elites to share educational costs led to a rapid decline in the number of public schools in the mid-1870s. The first Civilista regime diminished state subsidies for public schools due to ideological and financial reasons. 47 The Partido Civil also wanted to reduce public expenditures as the national treasury faced virtual bankruptcy. Civilistas (members of the Partido Civil) in power made regional councils or concejos departamentales responsible for running schools in the towns where they were located, supervising the educational activities of provincial and district councils, and providing school subsidies to provincial authorities who needed them.
In reaction to these problems, public educators resorted to professional associations and pedagogical publications to press the government for solutions to their problems. It was only during Augusto Leguía’s second presidential term (1919–1930) that national authorities were able to resume centralization in full. Through the study of primary schooling, this book shows that the construction of the Peruvian state was a gradual process that involved the participation of various social actors (political and intellectual elites, bureaucratic officers and educators, and urban and rural families).
A. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. 242 280 296 271 250 254 277 Sources: “Subprefectura de la provincia de Cañete . ,” Aug. 14, 1845, and “Razón de las escuelas existentes . ,” Aug. 1, 1845, AGN, R-J, Leg. 120;Ministerio de Gobierno, Instrucción Pública y Beneficencia, 1847; Ministerio de Gobierno, 1849; Ministerio de Justicia, Instrucción, Beneficencia y Negocios Eclesiásticos, 1853; Ministerio de Justicia, Instrucción y Beneficencia, 1861, 1862; Ministerio de Justicia, Instrucción Pública, Beneficencia y Culto, 1864; Ministerio de Justicia, Culto, Instrucción y Beneficencia, 1870; Cisneros, 1939; Prefectura de Lima, 1888, 1892; “Ministerio de Instrucción Pública,” in El Faro I: 24 (October 16, 1890), 298; Ministerio de Gobierno, Policía y Obras Públicas, 1891; Saavedra, “Memoria que presenta el Subprefecto de la Provincia de Cañete al Sr.