By Martin Ingrouille (auth.)
Diversity and Evolution of Land vegetation presents a clean and lengthy past due therapy of plant anatomy and morphology for the biology undergraduate of at the present time. surroundings apart the normal plod throughout the plant taxa, the writer adopts a problem-based practical technique, exploring plant range as a chain of other options to the layout difficulties dealing with plants on land.
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Extra resources for Diversity and Evolution of Land Plants
In Gymnosperms like Pinus (Fig. 9) an apical zonation has been described. There is a group of apical initials which are slightly larger and have a low affinity for cell stains. They give rise to a group of central mother cells from which regular files of small vacuolated cells arise, called rib meristems (Steeves and Sussex, 1989). A similar apical zonation has been noted in some flowering plants. The shoot apical meristem is surrounded by leaf and bud primordia; these are very obvious in those species with an elongated meristem like Elodea (Fig.
In a few species, a branch may start growing orthotropically and finish plagiotropically or vice versa. The modular construction of plants breaks down to a degree in those trees where there is a clear distinction between trunk and branches. The trunk is a set of metamers so modified it is impossible to identify them separately. However the modular construction is still obvious in the terminal parts of the branch system. The modular construction is also difficult to observe in some highly modified forms and in thalloid plants.
There are interactions with micro-organisms in the soil, on the plant surface or within its tissues. There are relationships with animals as herbivores, dispersal agents or cultivators. Unlike animals, plants have a very limited ability to choose their environment. They cannot move to a more favourable area. However it is important to remember, that plants are not passive acceptors of the physical environment. They can react to it, for example by changing the orientation of their leaves, or by growing.