By I.V. Minin, O.V. Minin
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From the early flooring and polished prism elements of glass lighthouse Fresnel lenses to fashionable microreplicated versatile Fresnel lenses for sunlight concentrators, new purposes of prismatic optical parts for mild keep watch over are consistently being built. moreover, techniques using unmarried and compound prismatic and reflective optical parts are rising within the fields of metrology, polarization keep watch over, projection platforms, illumination, and demonstrate lights, between others.
Like several classical Greek texts on technological know-how, Euclid's works on optics at first got here to the West regularly via medieval Arabic texts and commentaries. whereas a number of Greek models of the Optika have been chanced on and translated as early because the 16th century, checking out what can have been Euclid's unique has now not been effortless.
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Additional info for Diffractional Optics of Millimetre Waves (Series on Optics and Optoelectronics)
Note that by changing the eikonal by a constant which is a multiple of n, we not only leave the ﬁeld of rays unchanged but the values of the ﬁeld also remain unchanged, that is, the value of the eikonal is in principle found only up to a constant which is a multiple of n. Let the incident radiation be of the form U0 ðx; y; zÞ ¼ A expðÿikzÞ, that is, its eikonal is È0 ðx; y; zÞ ¼ ÿz. We wish to focus this radiation on to a point with coordinates ð0; 0; FÞ. The eikonal of the reﬂected ﬁeld is, to within a constant, È1 ðx; y; zÞ ¼ ÿðx2 þ y2 þ ðz ÿ FÞ2 Þ1=2 : Copyright 2004 IOP Publishing Ltd Computation of the phase-inversion proﬁle 43 The equation of the equivalent reﬂecting focusing surfaces is z ÿ ðx2 þ y2 þ ðz ÿ FÞ2 Þ1=2 ¼ c þ m; m ¼ 0; Æ1; Æ2; .
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A) Geometric modelling of a diﬀraction element. 8. (b) Ray paths across an MWDO element that focuses the incident radiation of an oﬀ-axis radiation source into an annular area . the diﬀraction element: Q ¼ ðA22 ÿ BÞ1=2 ÿ A2 ; A2 ¼ N; B2 ¼ Ã2 ÿ 2ÃðLu þ MÞ: The vector relations given above can be used for a rapid analysis of frequency and focusing properties of diﬀraction elements in various program complexes that are similar to those described in [7, 19–22] (ﬁrst of all, to analyse aberration characteristics).