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Extra info for Developing Countries in the WTO
Some of these references are general in nature and are expressed in broad `best efforts' terms, but in a few cases there are more explicit provisions on how developing countries should be treated more 38 Developing Countries in the WTO favourably or in ways that will least damage their interests. 2); and `special regard must be given by developed country Members to the special situation of developing country Members when considering the application of antidumping measures' (Article 15). While a strong case can be made that these provisions are not legally enforceable (Kessie, 2000) developing countries have questioned whether the developed countries have lived up to the spirit of their commitments, an issue that will be discussed in Chapter 6.
Countries can integrate into the world economy, grow and alleviate poverty. The key factors are the policies and institutions employed in the countries themselves and in the international environment to support this objective; and in this context a vital consideration is the role played by international trade and the WTO. Notes 1. For de®nitions, see Appendix 1. 2. It is estimated that with an average oil price of $28 a barrel in 2000, developingcountry oil exporters will improve their current account balance by $135 billion.
The principal result of these `framework discussions' of the Tokyo Round was the Enabling Clause of 1979. The clause established the principle of differential and more favourable treatment for developing countries, reciprocity and fuller participation by developing countries (GATT, 1980). It provided for: (1) preferential market access by developing countries to developed-country markets on a non-reciprocal, non-discriminatory basis; (2) more favourable treatment for developing countries in respect of other GATT rules on non-tariff barriers; (3) the introduction of preferential trade regimes between developing countries; and (4) special treatment of LDCs in the context of speci®c measures for developing countries.