By Laura Vivanco
The speculation of the 3 estates made transparent differences among the features of the 2 estates which comprised the elite of medieval society: the oradores (ecclesiastics) and the defensores (warriors or nobility). they'd diverse existence, garments and methods of brooding about existence. with reference to demise, the responses dictated through Christian theology conflicted with the calls for of the defensor ideology, in keeping with the defence of person honour, the pursuit of fama and the exhibit of earthly energy. This ebook charts the development of the death from their arrangements for dying, via their 'good' or 'bad' deaths, to their burials and otherworldly fates and likewise analyses the responses of the bereaved. by utilizing pre-fifteenth-century texts it truly is attainable to illustrate that the clash among the orador and defensor ideologies didn't commence within the 15th century, yet fairly had a miles older beginning, and it's endorsed that the clash persisted after 1500. Textual resources comprise the Siete partidas, wills, chronicles, spiritual works similar to the Arte de bien morir and literary works comparable to C?rcel de Amor and Celestina.
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The idea of the 3 estates made transparent differences among the capabilities of the 2 estates which comprised the elite of medieval society: the oradores (ecclesiastics) and the defensores (warriors or nobility). they'd diversified life, garments and methods of brooding about existence. in regards to dying, the responses dictated through Christian theology conflicted with the calls for of the defensor ideology, in response to the defence of person honour, the pursuit of fama and the reveal of earthly energy.
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Extra info for Death in Fifteenth-Century Castile: Ideologies of the Elites (Monografías A)
Cantera Montenegro too finds that: la enfermedad, y por tanto la posibilidad o el temor a la muerte cercana, era la principal impulsora del redactor del testamento, pues de los 83 testamentos, 40 fueron redactados estando enfermo el testador; pero a ellos habría que añadir otros en que no se hace constar el estado de enfermedad aunque ésta debía de ser un hecho, pues por alguna otra fuente sabemos que poco después ha muerto. (1987: 38) Given that wills were often written close to death and were one of the recognized signs that the dying person accepted their impending death, it should not surprise us that they contained a large religious element.
Por ende sepan todos quantos esta carta de Testamento vieren como nos don Enrique por la gracia de Dios rey de Castilla, de León, de Toledo, de Galicia, de Sevilla, de Córdoba, de Murcia, de Jaén, del Algarbe, de Algecira, e señor de Molina, estando en nuestra buena memoria e entendimiento, e conosciendo a nuestro Señor Dios Criador e Salvador de todas las gracias e beneficios [. . ] que nos fizo, e muchos más, por procurar e dexar en buen estado la nuestra ánima, e los nuestros regnos que nos dio e encomendó, e creyendo firmemente en la Sancta Trinidad, en la Fe Católica, e temiéndonos de la muerte, que es natural, de la qual ningund ome terrenal non puede escapar: por ende establescemos e ordenamos este nuestro postrimero testamento.
A clearer example of the manner in which events might be regarded as omens by one chronicler, but not by another, is provided by the circumstances surrounding the death of Queen Isabel in 1504. Bernáldez believed that the earthquakes which had taken place earlier that year were omens of her impending death, ‘ansí pareció que Nuestro Señor quiso mostrar señales antes de la muerte de esta tan excelente y noble y necesaria reyna’ (1878: 723). 11 While Ariès may be correct in observing that death in the Middle Ages ‘gives advance warning of its arrival’, we must be careful before assuming that this was true in all, or even most, cases.