De Architectura by Vitruvius

By Vitruvius

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2. If solid ground cannot be come to, and the ground be loose or marshy, the place must be excavated, cleared, and either alder, olive, or oak piles, previously charred, must be driven with a machine, as close to each other as possible, and the intervals, between the piles, filled with ashes. The heaviest foundations may be laid on such a base. 3. When they are brought up level, the stylobatæ (plinths) are placed thereon, according to the arrangement used, and above described for the pycnostylos, systylos, diastylos or eustylos , as the case may be.

With a similar feeling they afterwards built the temple of Diana. But in that, seeking a new proportion, they used the female figure as the standard: and for the purpose of producing a more lofty effect, they first made it eight times its thickness in height. Under it they placed a base, after the manner of a shoe to the foot; they also added volutes to its capital, like graceful curling hair hanging on each side, and the front they ornamented with cymatia and festoons in the place of hair. On the shafts they sunk channels, which bear a resemblance to the folds of a matronal garment.

Chapter 4 1. The length of a temple must be twice its width. The cell itself is to be in length one fourth part more than the breadth, including the wall in which the doors are placed. The remaining three parts run forward to the antæ of the walls of the pronaos, which antæ are to be of the same thickness as the columns. If the temple be broader than twenty feet, two columns are interposed between the two antæ, to separate the pteroma from the pronaos. The three intercolumniations between the antæ and the columns may be enclosed with fence work, either of marble or of wood, so, however, that they have doors in them for access to the pronaos.

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