Citrus: Molecular Phylogeny, Antioxidant Properties and by Khizar Hayat

By Khizar Hayat

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Edagricole, Milano: 95101. [44] Dixon, R. , Palva, N. , (1995). Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell 7, 1085-1097. , (1999). One type of chalcone synthase gene expressed during embryogenesis regulates the flavonoid accumulation in citrus cell cultures. Plant Cell Physiol. 40, 651-655. , Russo, M. , Lo Piero, A. , (2000). Anthocyanin bio-synthesis in blood oranges. Proc. Intl. Soc. Citricult. 1, 681–682. , (2001). Gene expression in flavonoid biosynthesis: correlation with flavonoid accumulation in developing citrus fruit.

Plant Sci. 174, 606– 612. , (2009). l-Ascorbate biosynthesis in peach: cloning of six l-galactose pathway-related genes and their expression during peach fruit development. Physiol. Plantarum 136, 139–149. , (2007). Silencing of the mitochondrial ascorbate synthesizing enzyme l-galactono-1,4lactone dehydrogenase affects plant and fruit development in tomato. Plant Physiol. 145, 1408–1422. , Kalamaki, M. , Kanellis, A. , (2009). Expression profiling of ascorbic acid-related genes during tomato fruit development and ripening and in response to stress conditions.

Flavones is another important group and can be found in all parts of the plants, above and below ground level, in vegetative and generative organs [25]. Flavones are especially isolated from essential oil of citrus fruits (in the flavedo) and are also identified in juice [26]. The main flavones in citrus are diosmin, apigenin, luteolin, diosmetin, and tangeretin. Flavonols are also an important class of flavonoids and they exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumoral properties, free radical scavenging, alteration of the mitotic cycle in tumor cells, gene expression modification, and anti-angiogenesis activities [27].

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