Ciba Foundation Symposium 53 - Further Perspectives in

Chapter 1 Chairman's starting feedback (pages 1–2): G. W. Kenner
Chapter 2 advent (pages 3–4): Lord Todd
Chapter three Biosynthesis in thought and perform: constitution Determinations (pages 5–24): A. J. Birch
Chapter four principles and Experiments in Biosynthesis (pages 25–51): A. R. Battersby
Chapter five layout of a particular Oxidant for Phenols (pages 53–66): Sir Derek Barton and Steven V. Ley
Chapter 6 Synthesis of Sesquiterpenoids of Biogenetic significance (pages 67–83): Robert Ramage
Chapter 7 ideas for Ring Closure (pages 85–106): J. Baldwin
Chapter eight a few contemporary advancements in Quantum natural Chemistry (pages 107–129): Michael J. S. Dewar
Chapter nine Biomimetic Syntheses of Phenols from Polyketones (pages 131–147): G. E. Evans, M. J. Garson, D. A. Griffin, F. J. Leeper and J. Staunton
Chapter 10 Selective Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis (pages 149–173): J. M. Brown
Chapter eleven reports on Enzyme types and at the Enzyme Carboxypeptidase A (pages 175–202): Ronald Breslow
Chapter 12 Summing Up (pages 203–204): Lord Todd

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Each stage illustrated has the support of labelling studies, stereochemical correlations and isolation work; the combined evidence is overwhelming. The central part of the pathway Me Me0 0 ’ Thebaine Codeinone HO” HO’ Codeine SCHEME 2. The biosynthesis of morphine. around the dienone emerged from a fruitful collaborative effort (Barton et al. 1965; for studies with I4CO2see, e. g. Martin et al. 1967 and references therein) and we must never forget, in relation to the aryl-aryl coupling step, the highly important ideas of Barton & Cohen (1957) and of Erdtman & Wachtmeister (1957) on phenol oxidation.

1962) before we could do the key experiment, illustrated in Scheme 1 (Battersby & Binks 1960; Battersby et al. 1966). I4C-labelled norlaudanosoline (1) was synthesized and was converted by the poppy plants into morphine (2) which was shown to be specifically labelled as illustrated. This result established the relationship Sir Robert had proposed and it laid open the problem of morphine biosynthesis; moreover, by showing that large 27 IDEAS AND EXPERIMENTS IN BIOSYNTHESIS synthetic precursors could be successfully introduced into the plants’ biosynthetic machinery, it gave the confidence to test other precursors in the opium poppy and in many other living plants.

WILLIAMS,D. C. AP pyrromethane. J. Chem. Chem. , 115-116 BATTERSBY, A. , JOHNSON, D. , MCDONALD, E. & WILLIAMS, D. C. AP pyrromethane into uro’gen-Ill. J. Chem. SOC. Chem. , HEGER, I. & MULLER, G. (1976) Uroporphyrinogen formation-studies with I-aminomethyl-3,8,13,18-tetra(2-carboxyethyl)-2,7,12,17-tetracarboxymethylbilinogen. Hoppe-Zeyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 357, 147 ERDTMAN, H. & WACHTMEISTER, C. A. (1957)in Festschriftflr Arthur Stoll, p. 144,Birkhauser, Basle FRYDMAN, B. & FRYDMAN, R. B. (1975)Biosynthesis of uroporphyrinogens from porphobilinogen.

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