Ciba Foundation Symposium 52 - The Freezing of Mammalian

Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–2): D. G. Whittingham
Chapter 2 The Freezing of Mammalian Embryos: views and probabilities (pages 3–18): C. Polge
Chapter three Slow?Freezing harm in Mammalian Cells (pages 19–48): Peter Mazur
Chapter four results of Interactions among Cooling and Rewarming stipulations on Survival of Cells (pages 49–67): J. Farrant, Heather Lee and C. A. Walter
Chapter five primary Cryobiology of Mouse Ova and Embryos (pages 69–96): S. P. Leibo
Chapter 6 a few elements Affecting Embryo garage in Laboratory Animals (pages 97–127): D. G. Whittincham
Chapter 7 shipping Mechanisms within the Preimplantation Mammalian Embryo (pages 129–153): John D. Biggers, R. Michael Borland and R. Douglas Powers
Chapter eight The influence of Temperature at the Lateral Diffusion of Plasma Membrane Proteins (pages 155–174): Michael Edidin and Valerie A. Petit
Chapter nine elements Affecting the Survival of Sheep Embryos in the course of Deep?Freezing and Thawing (pages 175–201): S. M. Willadsen
Chapter 10 Frozen garage of Embryos of cattle: development and Implications (pages 203–233): N. W. Moore and R. J. Bilton
Chapter eleven The Relevance of the Frozen garage of Human Embryos (pages 235–250): R. G. Edwards and P. C. Steptoe
Chapter 12 Genetic balance in mobile structures kept within the Frozen country (pages 251–272): M. J. Ashwood?Smith and Elizabeth Grant
Chapter thirteen Long?Term garage of Frozen Mouse Embryos lower than elevated history Irradiation (pages 273–290): Mary F. Lyon, D. G. Whittingham and P. Glenister
Chapter 14 Genetic go with the flow: the matter and its attainable resolution via Frozen?Embryo garage (pages 291–303): Donald W. Bailey
Chapter 15 A Mouse Geneticist's Impatient looking forward to the coming of Embryo?Freezing options (pages 305–321): Jan Klein

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Extra resources for Ciba Foundation Symposium 52 - The Freezing of Mammalian Embryos

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From Leibo 1977a [Fig. 71. ) temperature if the cell water has been unable to leave the cells fast enough during cooling to concentrate the internal solutes sufficiently to bring ,LLJ into equilibrium with , u ~ ,Two ~ . critical items that define 'fast enough' are the cooling rate and the permeability of the cell to water. The faster the cooling, the less the dehydration, and the greater the likelihood of intracellular freezing. A cell with one-fifth the water permeability of another otherwise identical cell must be cooled one-fifth as rapidly to avoid intracellular freezing (Mazur 1977~).

CONNOR, K. W. & BECKER, G. (1972) Low-temperature ASHWOOD-SMITH, preservation of mammalian cells in tissue culture with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), dextrans, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES). Cryobiology 9, 441-449 BAKER,H. (1972) The intracellular pressure of Nitella in hypertonic solutions and its relationship to freezing injury. Cryobiology 9, 283-288 BANK,H. (1974) Freezing injury in tissue-cultured cells as visualized by freeze-etching. Exp. Cell Res. 85, 367-376 R. R. (1974) Survival of frozen rabbit embryos.

I would suggest that this will also affect the concentration of salt inside the cell, even though PVP does not enter the cell. It might be that the most sensitive site of injury is the outside of the cell membrane, but because you are affecting the concentration of salt outside the cell by PVP, the driving force for any particular species of cation t o enter the cell under the conditions of freezing will be totally different from that in the absence of cryoprotectant. I think that indirectly you can alter intracellular concentrations of electrolytes with a totally extracellular protective agent.

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