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Additional resources for Cell Biology: A Comprehensive Treatise. Gene Expression: The Production of RNAs
1. , 1977; see also the review in Lewin, 1975). These extra sequences occur at both the 3'- and 5'-ends of the message, in addition to the polyadenylation that is also found at the 3'-end of many mRNA's. Thus, transcription of a gene produces an mRNA which includes sequences other than just the coding sequences. Adenovirus, a linear double-stranded D N A virus of about 60,000 nuc leotide pairs, synthesizes both "early" and "late" mRNAs during infec tion (see review in Tooze, 1973). , 1976; see also Williamson, Chapter 10, this volume).
Arrangement in Prokaryotes Current ideas about the organization of the various elements of singlecopy structural genes are largely based on bacterial gene systems. This is because bacterial genes are usually present in single copies in a haploid 42 Christopher J. Bostock chromosome of an organism that divides rapidly, and are thus readily amenable to genetic analysis. More recently, D N A sequencing studies of particular regions of structural gene elements have complemented the genetic analysis and added to our understanding of the structure and organization of control regions of structural genes.
Thus, the long period repeats show little divergence and would appear to be of recent origin or are maintained in a homogeneous state in some way. The short period repeats must have accumulated many base substitutions, resulting in poorly base-paired reassociated duplexes, and would appear to be of older origin. 1. Organization of DNA Sequences in Chromosomes 29 These different rates of divergence suggest that the repetitive sequences that are present in the two types of interspersion are derived from differ ent families of sequences.