By Sabine Fillinger, Yigal Elad
The fungal genus Botrytis is the focal point of in depth medical learn around the world. The advanced interactions among this pathogen and the crops it infects and the industrial value of the illnesses because of Botrytis (principally gray mold) on greater than 1400 species of cultivated crops pre- and post-harvest, render this pathogen of specific curiosity to farmers, advisers, scholars and researchers in lots of fields around the globe. This 20-chapter publication is a finished treatise masking the quickly constructing technology of Botrytis and reflecting the main advancements in stories of this fungus. it is going to function a resource of basic info for experts in agriculture and horticulture, and in addition for college kids and scientists drawn to the biology of this interesting, multifaceted phytopathogenic fungal species.
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Additional resources for Botrytis – the Fungus, the Pathogen and its Management in Agricultural Systems
2 Numbers of Nuclei and Chromosomes The life cycle of B. cinerea is reported in Fig. 1. Hyphal cells and conidia are multinucleate. Conidia contain generally 3–6 nuclei (Grindle 1979; Lorenz and Eichorn 1983; Shirane et al. 1988, 1989) whilst microconidia are uninucleate, usually not able to germinate on culture media, and have the function of male gametes (spermatia) in sexual process. Young asci contain a single diploid nucleus that undergoes meiosis generating a tetrad of haploid nuclei which through a mitotic division produce the eight nuclei around which eight ascospores in each ascus are formed.
Clade 2 could be sub-divided into five smaller clades and consisted largely of Botrytis species infecting monocots but with several species that are specialist pathogens of dicots. Whilst the molecular analysis highly supported the previous taxonomic analysis based on the recognition of species by their morphological features, the host and pathogen phylogenies are not congruent. This suggests that tight co-evolution between Botrytis and host plants does not result in Botrytis speciation, and that hostshifts may be frequent.
This is claimed to allow rapid detection of isolates that are resistant to three major fungicides, and thus to permit the early diagnosis and improve integrated pest management strategies. Such molecular studies will prove immensely important for analysing the population genetic diversity of pathogenic Botrytis, especially tracking the emergence, maintenance and spread of fungicide resistance from the local to the international level. At a practical level, these studies will permit far more responsive protective measures for crops in the future, and increase the effectiveness of Botrytis containment and control.