By Andrzej Środoń, Kazimierz Tobolski (auth.), Mark G. Tjoelker, Adam Boratyński, Władysław Bugała (eds.)
Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is a crucial tree species with a impressive ordinary diversity all through Europe and Asia, starting from the Balkan Peninsula to Siberia within the north and from the French Alps within the west to the ocean of Okhotsk within the east. anyplace it happens, it's a key section of either common and controlled forests. Norway spruce is the main economically helpful conifer in Europe, generating top quality trees and wooden items.
This publication offers a concise and entire evaluate of the biology, ecology, and administration of Norway spruce. It integrates vintage and modern literature (more than 2000 works mentioned within the text), highlighting uncomplicated learn and forestry practices in important and jap Europe. the subjects comprise anatomy and morphology, body structure and meals, reproductive biology and genetics, and ecology.
In addition, it examines mycorrhiza, ailments and pests in addition to silviculture and wooden items. within the mild of accelerating threats to woodland future health from pollution, weather switch, and bugs and disorder, it offers a vital details resource to these excited about the ecology, conservation, and administration of the species.
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Additional info for Biology and Ecology of Norway Spruce
Studies of population and range-wide trait variation of Picea abies in central Europe Trait Number of samples Remarks and results Source of data Seed TYSZKIE119 from Seed collected by foresters in managed Poland stands, probably not always of natural origin. WICZ 1934b Lack of seeds from stands of spruceless belt. The differences between northeastern (boreal) and southern (mountain) populations are described. Pollen 15 from Europe The author interprets the results based on an DYAKOWSKA a priori assumption of existence of a 1964 spruceless belt (for an alternative view, see ŚRODOŃ 1967a, b).
Tannin cells in the pith are stained yellow or green. Arrows indicate the nodal diaphragm (crown). (photo A. HEJNOWICZ) A – male embryonic shoot; mi – microsporophyll; B – vegetative embryonic shoot; n – needle June or early July, needle primordia are formed in the vegetative bud. This process terminates in early September. As early as June, the two types of embryonic shoot can be distinguished. 1A, B). This difference is magnified during the next period of bud growth (Fig. 1C, D). 4). The abundance of tannin cells in an embryonic shoot makes it possible to determine the bud type before the leaf primordia (needles or microsporophylls) become discernible.
In the western Carpathians in Slovakia and Poland, the species is common in the higher mountain ranges (SVOBODA 1953; KORNAŚ 1957; SOMORA 1958; STUCHLIKOWA and STUCHLIK 1962; ZARZYCKI 1963; JASIEWICZ 1965; JASI OVA 1966; MYCZKOWSKI et al. 1975; TOWPASZ 1975; ZARZYCKI 1981; BIAŁECKA 1982; PAGAN 1992), whereas in the lower mountain ranges it is very rare and may not occur at all. In the Sudety Mts P. abies is common and frequently planted (SKALICKÁ and SKALICKÝ 1988; DOSTAL 1989; BORATYŃSKI 1991) (Figs.