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Extra resources for Avian reproductive tactics: Female and male perspectives
One study of the Wood Warbler estimated the fraction of polygynousmales in the population at 23% (Gyllensten et al. 1990); in this same study,molecular analysisof blood from 13 families uncoveredno incidence of paternity exclusion. This occurs becausemale fecundity dependsnot AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TACTICS 43 only on the number of mates but to a limited extent on the quality of resources or parentalcare males provide, which effectively lowers the male sexualselection 'gradient (Fig. la). Males in this mating systemare expectedto exert some degree of direct or indirect (via female-female competition)mate choice (Trivers 1972; Burley 1977).
1990). Mated males at risk of low paternity may increase allocation to mate guarding, determination of their paternity, and territory defenseagainstmale intruders. Females are also expected to have conditional ME tactics. Thus, for example,femalesmatedto low-ranking or unattractive males may seek EPCs more often and/or avoid FEPCs to a lesser extent than females mated to more attractive males (Smith 1988; Burley and Price 1991; Smith et al. 1991; Burley et al. 1996). Particularlyfemales mated to low-genetic-quality males on poor territories may choose social mates for potentiallyhigh PE, while looking to EPC partnersfor good genesor aesthetic traits.
Thus, the sexual selection gradient may ignore significant sourcesof sexual selection (mate quality) or attribute to mating successaspectsof fecundity that rightfully belong under natural selection(clutch size or number). Unlessvariation in mate number is causedby variation in mating attractivenessor intrasexual competitiveability, and unlessfecundity closely approximatesreproductivesuccess (RS), a relationship between mate number and fecundity is not a sexual selectiongradient. PATERNITY, PE, AND CONDITIONALPE TACTICS Authorshave repeatedlysuggestedthat someconfidenceof paternityis a preconditionto the evolution,maintenance,or expressionof male parentalcare(Trivers 1972; Gladstone 1979; Zenone et al.