By Govind Agrawal
Because the box grew, Agrawal made up our minds to separate this article off from his Nonlinear Fiber Optics, that is extra fascinated with the discipline's basics. This version is meant for senior undergraduates, graduate scholars, engineers and technicians within the telecommunications undefined, and scientists operating with fiber optics and optical communications. It covers the development blocks of light-wave know-how - fiber-based gratings, couplers, and interferometers - in addition to amplifiers and lasers made utilizing rare-earth-doped fibers; pulse-compression strategies; fiber-optic communique structures; and soliton-based transmission schemes.
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101], c 1998, reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science) branch of the dispersion curve). At lower power levels, pulse is compressed because of the combination of GVD and SPM that leads to soliton-effect compression (discussed in Chapter 6). At the 25 GW/cm2 power level, the transmitted pulse exhibits a multipeak structure that can be interpreted as a pulse train generated through modulation instability. This interpretation is supported by the observation that the repetition rate (spacing between two neighboring pulses) changes with the laser wavelength (equivalent to changing the detuning parameter δ ), as expected from the theory of modulation instability.
This is not surprising if f ¦1. Note that VG becomes negative for f we note that the backward-propagating wave is more intense in that case. The speed of light is reduced considerably as the CW-beam frequency approaches an edge of the stop band. As an example, it reduces by 50% when f 2 equals 1/3 or 3. 5) can be used to find how the dispersion curves are affected by the fiber nonlinearity. 11 shows such curves at two power levels. The nonlinear effects change the upper branch of the dispersion curve qualitatively, leading to the formation a loop beyond a critical power level.
66]) commonly used to remove the sidebands seen in Figs. 8 . In this technique, the intensity of the ultraviolet laser beam used to form the grating is made nonuniform in such a way that the intensity drops to zero gradually near the two grating ends. 9(a) shows schematically the periodic index variation in an apodized fiber grating. In a transition region of width Lt near the grating ends, the value of the coupling coefficient κ increases from zero to its maximum value. These buffer zones can suppress the sidebands almost completely, resulting in fiber gratings with practically useful filter characteristics.