Animal Eyes by Michael F. Land, Dan-Eric Nilsson

By Michael F. Land, Dan-Eric Nilsson

The in simple terms ebook giving an account of the constitution, functionality, and evolution of all of the sorts of eye identified within the animal kingdom
Written in a transparent and available kind via most sensible specialists within the field
Uses examples from through the animal country, deciding on universal subject matters that go beyond taxonomy
Relates physiological components to animal ecology and behaviour
Has a wide assurance that may attract a various readership, together with biologists, optometrists, and physicists

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The "catching up" in late season of the plant with a lower RGRt:=() to a plant with a higher RGRt:=() is significant (Fig. 4). A second factor softening initial RGR differences is the potential to extend the growing season to make the products RGR·ft more nearly equal for different plants ... at some increased risk of loss to the slower-growing and later-growing plant. (4) Over a whole season, additional complicating factors are common. Two factors which may be corrected for, given some tediously acquired data, are: (a) variation of the costs Ci and the dry-matter contents Ii with time or plant size, usually in the direction of increasing Ci and decreasing Ii, and (b) scavenging of the root, nodule, leaf, and other resource-acquiring tissues, meriting a credit of the type discussed in Sec.

For any specific c(x), it must explore the soil a bit wastefully. Some optimal exploration latitude is undoubtedly definable. (4) Invasion-proofing: In competitive growth, an adaptive strategy must be stable against invasion by competing plants that "cheat" in resource use. See Sec. B, item 2, on evolutionarily stable strategies. (5) Adequacy of selection pressure: The specific environmental state under consideration, in which a maximal internal capacity is demanded, must occur frequently enough to make it cost-effective to carry the adaptation potential (Sec.

4) Operational and capital costs of the so-called pH-stat In the next Section, we shall see how plants' use of NOi" or NHt respectively generates OIr or H+ ions that must be neutralized For nitrate metabolism, malic acid is typically produced from neutral precursors, ultimately glucose. If malate ions are simply retained in the shoot (Fig. 3), they represent a capital carbon (energy) expenditure Cp of approximately 1/3 mol glu/g N or 4 g glu/g N (less a modest credit for energy recovered as A'IP in getting to the malate stage).

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