By Sandra Dawson (auth.)
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This sounds fairly reasonable as a set of working assumptions, but there is little real-life evidence of the effects of conditioning on humans at work. Thus, although insightful and certainly descriptive of many sequences, not everyone behaves exactly as expectancy theory or conditioning theory predicts. Chance, serendipity, creativity, intuition and whim are also important, and these will be discussed further in Chapter 10. 3 Individual Performance Expectancy and equity theories allow us to scrutinise an unproved but nevertheless widely held assumption, given publicity by Herzberg (among others), that a satisfied employee is always a 'better ' worker than a dissatisfied one.
Accountability Specified Medium High Very small part Number of records made, accuracy of records Supervisor Supervisor intervenes Maintain electrical equipment in good order Diagnosing and rectifying faults Craft tools Moderate Some leeway 5-200 minutes Selfdetermined but output monitored Specified Medium Medium Whole part Supervisor's! user's assessment Success of work Supervisor Supervisor intervenes Write programs for in-house users Thinking, writing Computer Moderate Great leeway Open Self-determined but output monitored Open Low Low Whole part Long-term success of programs Self/Manager Self/Manager intervenes Discretion and control Underlying much of this discussion about job requirements has been the extent to which, for each job element, the job-holder has discretion and, conversely, the extent to which he/she is subject to external control.
At a minimum, control over jobs with a high degree of autonomy and discretion is usually exercised unobtrusively through the educational and industrial institutions which trained and recruited the job-holder. This means that control has been built into job performance through socialisation. The term 'cultural' instead of 'unobtrusive' is sometimes used for this aspect of control. The craftsman potter learns creative techniques and business practice either formally or informally from colleagues and institutions as well as teaching himself a great deal through original thought and private reading.