By Francois Bancilhon, Gilles Barbedette (auth.), Klaus R. Dittrich (eds.)
This quantity collects papers awarded on the 2d overseas Workshop on Object-Oriented Database structures (ooDBS-II) held on the Ebernburg close to undesirable Münster am Stein, FRG, in September 1988. It therefore offers a accomplished evaluate of the newest advancements during this flourishing quarter of present database examine. Object-oriented database structures were approached with usually significant intentions in brain, specifically to higher help new software parts like CAD/CAM, workplace automation, wisdom engineering, and to beat the 'impedance mismatch' among facts versions and programming languages. The idea of object-orientation in database structures is hence a broader one than e.g. within the region of programming languages. Structural object-orientation presents for info version mechanisms that let the direct illustration and manipulation of highly-structured entities; behavioral object-orientation cares for amenities to affiliate arbitrary user-defined type-specific operations with information entities; eventually, complete object-orientation attempts to mix some great benefits of either different types. although facts version techniques are the decisive function of object-oriented database platforms, various different procedure facets need to be reconsidered or enable greater options, respectively, during this gentle. They contain e.g. transactions, implementation strategies, optimization, formalization, the inclusion of ideas, and the combination with different structures. a few study prototypes or even a few advertisement structures are in the meantime on hand. either, techniques to increase databases with object-oriented services and ways to increase object-oriented programming languages with database positive factors were and are being investigated.
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Additional info for Advances in Object-Oriented Database Systems: 2nd International Workshop on Object-Oriented Database Systems Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg, FRG September 27–30, 1988 Proceedings
Yet, after submission of applications, what role is left for technology in document processing and delivery? The Importance of Targeting Structural Causes of Failure in E-Government 41 Application processing at the Government of Kerala works as follows. Online applications are submitted along with the required documents to the office of the Rationing Inspector, located at the Department of Food and Civil Supplies. Bureaucrats at the office of the Rationing Inspector perform field-level verification and prepare a report that is then sent to the TSO for reference.
However, they usually remain limited as they cannot account for processes, contextual factors, and triggers that make some strategies more successful than others. Research in the area of ICT and development has provided valuable insights into the multiple social, political, economic and technical dimensions that shape, and are shaped during, modernization reforms that include building technological platforms (see for example  and ). The fact that political forces together with other multiple socio-technical factors shape the design, implementation or use of ICT in government does not remain an exclusive domain of research on development.
Even more strikingly, interviews conducted at the office of the Rationing Inspector itself shed little light on these dynamics. Bureaucrats interviewed uniformly spoke about “regularity of documentation,” but attempts to gain more precise insights -- which documents, how is “regularity” measured, what is actually verified -- were unsuccessful. As a result, there is significant uncertainty surrounding state-level verification of ration card applications, which is affected by systematic and severe delays.